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Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a mountainous, landlocked country in South-Central Asia at an important geopolitical location, it connects the Middle East with Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. It is bordered by Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, it has a short border in the Wakhan Corridor panhandle with Xinjiang, an autonomous region of China. Dari (Afghan Persian), Pashto. Population: 3.72 crores (2018) Area: 652,000 km² (249,935 sq. mi.) AFG Education The American University of Afghanistan The private university is planning four-year liberal-arts degrees in Business Administration and Information Communication Technology with all classes to be taught in English. Kabul University Kabul University is the oldest and largest institution of tertiary education in Afghanistan. Type: Islamic Republic. Independence: 19 August 1919. Constitution: 4 January 2004. Climate - Dry, with cold winters and hot summers.


A virtual guide to Albania, a country on the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe with a coastline at the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea in west (both portions of the Mediterranean Sea). It is bordered by Montenegro in north, Serbia (Kosovo) in north east, the Republic of Macedonia in east, and Greece in south east. Albania shares also maritime borders with Croatia and Italy. With an area of 28,748 km² the country is a just a bit smaller than Belgium or the U.S. state of Maryland. Albanian - Republika e Shqiperise short form: Shqiperia int'l long form: Republic of Albania int'l short form: Albania 28.5 lakhs Area: 28,748 km² (11,100 sq. mi.) AL, ALB Climate: Mediterranean, Mild temperate--short, soft, wet winters; hot and dry summers. Type: Parliamentary republic. Constitution: Adopted by popular referendum 28 November 1998. Independence:28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire).


Destination Algeria, the country is located in Northern Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in north, Tunisia in northeast, Libya in east, Morocco in west, Western Sahara, Mauritania, and Mali in southwest, and by Niger in the southeast. Algeria is now Africa's largest country, covering an area of nearly 2.4 million km², compared, it is 4 times the size of France or slightly less than 3.5 times the size of the U.S. state of Texas. But the country is almost only populated in the small coastal region, because its southern part is covered by the Sahara, the largest subtropical hot desert. Arabic (official), French, Tamazight and other Berber dialects. 40.4 million Area: 2.38 million km² DZ Abou Bekr Belkaid University Tlemcen Badji Mokhtar University One of the oldest universities in Algeria, located in Annaba. Université d'Alger Algiers oldest university, founded 1909. Université Mentouri - Constantine Constantine Type: Republic. Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France) Climate: Mediterranean in the north, mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; dry or desert climate for the extreme south of the country; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer.

American Samoa

Destination American Samoa. This page is about the many aspects of the archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. A group of seven islands and atolls, with the main island of Tutuila. American Samoa is an unincorporated overseas territory of the United States. The island territory shares maritime borders with Samoa, Tonga, Cook Islands (New Zealand), Niue (New Zealand), and Tokelau (New Zealand). It is the United States' only territory south of the equator. The archipelago is situated east of the island of Samoa, about 4,200 km (2,600 mi) southwest of Hawaii, (Western Samoa) and 1,200 km northeast of Fiji. Spoken languages are Samoan 54,300 (2015) 199 km² (115 sq. mi AS, ASM Climate: Tropical; dry season (May to October), rainy season (November to April). Government: The unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; is administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, a unit of the US Department of the Interior. Chief of state: President of the United States. Independence: none Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand.


Destination Andorra. The tiny but sovereign coprincipality of Andorra is situated in south-western Europe, in the eastern Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain. With an area of 468 km² it is about 3 times the size of Liechtenstein, or 2.5 times the size of Washington, D.C., making it one of the smallest countries in the world bordered by more than one other country. Catalan (official), Spanish and French 71,700 (2015) 468 sq. km (180 sq. mi) AD AND Universitat d'Andorra University home page, information about the University of Andorra (in Catalan) Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant, and other 30%. Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English. Literacy: 97%


A virtual guide to Angola, a country on the western coast of southern Africa. Angola is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in west, Namibia in south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (former Zaire) in north, and Zambia in the east. The exclave province of Cabinda is separated from Angola by a tongue of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and has also borders with the Republic of the Congo. Angola occupies an area of 1,246,700 km², compared it is almost 14 times the size of Portugal, the former colonial power of the country, or slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of Texas. Portuguese (official), Ovimbundu, Kimbundu, Bakongo, and others. 24,4 million (2014) 1,246,700 km² (481 400 sq. mi) AO AGO Universidade Agostinho Neto The home page for Angola's Agostinho Neto University. Universidade Catolica de Angola Home page of the university. (in Portuguese) Republic. Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal). Climate: Semiarid in south and along the coast; north has a cool, dry season (May - October) and a hot, rainy season (November - April) Agriculture products: Bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish. Industries: Petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles. Exports - commodities: crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, minerals, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton.


Argentina is an independent state and a republic which occupies much of the southern part of South America. With an area of 2,780,400 km², it is the 8th largest country in the world and the second-largest country in South America (after Brazil). Compared it is slightly larger than 5 times the size of France, or about 4 times the size of Texas. Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French. 43.5 million (2016) 2.8 million km² (1.1 million sq. mi.) AR ARG Ministerio de Educación The Ministry of Culture and Education. Universidad de Buenos Aires UBA Founded in 1821, it is the largest university in Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba The National University of Córdoba is the oldest university in Argentina, founded in 1613 by Jesuits (Society of Jesus). List of universities in Argentina Wikipedia's list of public and private universities in Argentina. Guide to Argentine Universities. (in Spanish) Type: Republic. Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain). Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994. Climate: Varied--predominantly temperate with extremes ranging from subtropical in the north to arid/sub- Antarctic in far south. Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%. Agriculture products: Grains, oilseeds and by-products, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock. Industries: Food processing, motor vehicles, oil refining, machinery and equipment, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals. Exports - commodities: soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat


Destination Armenia, this page is about the landlocked country on the crossroad between Europe and Asia. The former Soviet republic is situated in southeastern Europe/western Asia, east of Turkey, north of Iran and south of the mountainous Caucasus region (Transcaucasia). It is also bordered by Azerbaijan and Georgia. With an area of 29,743 km² Armenia is just slightly smaller than Belgium, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Maryland. Armenian (Hayeren) 96%, Russian, other. 3.0 million (2015) 29,800 km² (11,490 square miles) AM American University of Armenia The American University of Armenia (AUA) offers Master's level graduate programs. Yerevan State University (YSU) Official site of the formerly State University of Armenia, the most important institution of higer education in Armenia. National Academy of Sciences of Armenia Official site of the academy which is part of the Academical Scientific Network of Armenia. Government: Type: Republic with a presidential governing system. Constitution: Approved in 1995 referendum. (Text of the Constitution in PDF format) Independence: (from Turkey, the then declining Ottoman Empire) 1918; First Armenian Republic . 21 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union). Climate: Continetal, with lower temperatures and more precipitation in higher elevations. In central plateau temperature varies widely with cold winters and hot summers. Agriculture products: Fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock. Industries: Diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy.


Destination Aruba, a virtual travel guide to this Dutch island off the coast of Venezuela in the South Caribbean Sea. Together with Bonaire and Curaçao, Aruba is known as one of the ABC islands. Formerly part of the Netherlands Antilles, today Aruba is one of the four constituent countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands. With an area of 180 km² , the island is the size of Liechtenstein, or slightly larger than Washington, DC. Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish. 110,000 (Dec. 2015) Area: 180 km² (69 sq miles AW Education in Aruba Information on the education system of Aruba, which is organized along similar lines as the system in the Netherlands. Universiteit van de Nederlandse Antillen University of the Netherlands Antilles on Curaçao. Geography: Location: Caribbean, island in the South Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela. Terrain: Flat with a few hills. Climate: Tropical marine. Agriculture products: Aloes; livestock; fish. Industries: Tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining. Exports partners: Colombia, Netherlands Antilles, USA, Netherlands, Mexico, Venezuela, Panama


Destination Australia, welcome to the Nations Online country profile of the "unknown southern land." Some say, with Australia, you get it all: a continent with its own tectonic plate, a country with a population density others can only dream of, and a massive island with a 30,000 km long beach. Australia is situated entirely in the southern hemisphere, between the Indian and the Pacific ocean, south of Maritime Southeast Asia and north of the Antarctic. English (official), Italian 12,4%, Greek 9.2 %, Cantonese 7.9 %, only 51 000 people speaking an Australian Indigenous Language at home. 25.4 million (2019) 7.7 million km² (3 million sq. mi.) AU, AUS Australian National University Canberra Charles Sturt University The multi-campus public university is located in New South Wales. Macquarie University Australia's Innovative University, Sydney. Monash University The second oldest university in the State of Victoria is Australia's university with the most students. University of Adelaide The public university in Adelaide in South Australia was established in 1874. University of South Australia The public research university is the largest in South Australia. University of Tasmania One of Australia's leading universities. University of the Sunshine Coast Sippy Downs near Brisbane, Queensland. University of Western Australia A public research university with its main campus in Perth. Democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign. Constitution: 9 July, 1900. Independence (federation): 1 January 1901. Climate: Relatively dry, ranging from temperate in the south to tropical in the north. Natural resources: Bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum. Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry. Industries: Mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel. Exports - commodities: coal, iron ore, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery, and transport equipment. Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment, and parts; crude oil and petroleum products.


Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in East Central Europe which borders the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Switzerland. The country covers an area of 83,871 km², making Austria somewhat smaller than Portugal (92,090 km²), or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Maine. The country is mostly dominated in the west and south by mountains (the Alps). Austria's highest point is Grossglockner mountain, with a height of 3,798 m (12,460 ft.). German 8.6 million (2016) 83,871 km² (32,382 sq. mi.) AT-AUT Technische Universität Graz Graz University of Technology, founded in 1811. Paris-Lodron-Universität Salzburg Founded: 1622. University of Art and Industrial Design Linz University of Innsbruck Universität Klagenfurt University of Klagenfurt Universität Wien Alma Mater Rudolphina, the University of Vienna, founded 1365. Konrad Lorenz Institute for Ethology A scientific institute devoted to the study of animal behavior, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Libraries Österreichische Nationalbibliothek The Austrian National Library. Universitätsbibliothek Wien Library of the Vienna University. Government: Parliamentary democracy. Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated May 1, 1945). Climate: Continental temperate. Agriculture products: Drains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber. Industries: Construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism. Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs.


A virtual guide to Azerbaijan. The former Soviet republic is an independent state since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The country is situated in southwestern Asia with the Great Caucasus Mountains to the north. Historically, the name Azerbaijan refers to a larger region that formed part of Persia (Iran). Azerbaijan is bordered by the Caspian Sea in east, by Iran in south, by Armenia in west, and Georgia and Russia in the north. The Azeri autonomous republic of Nakhchivan forms an enclave within the Republic of Armenia, in a narrow part in west it borders Turkey. Its highest mountain is Bazarduzu Dagi with 4,485 m. With an area of 86,600 km² the country is slightly larger than Austria or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Maine. Azerbaijani 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, and other 6%.Literacy: 97%. 9.7 million (in 2016) 86,600 km² (33 774 sq. mi.) AZ Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences Official website of with information about the academy. Baku State University Azerbaijan's "number one" university. Khazar University Khazar University is a leading academic institution of Azerbaijan, established in 1991. Western University Western University is one of the leading universities in the country, a private, non-profit officially recognized educational institution, founded in 1991 at Baku. Type: Republic. Constitution: Approved in November 1995 referendum. Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union). Climate: Dry, subtropical with hot summers and mild winters; forests, meadows, and alpine tundra in the mountains. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina. Agriculture products: Cotton, tobacco, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats. Industries: Petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles. Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals


Destination Bahamas, a country profile of the Caribbean archipelago in the northwest of West Indies. New Providence island with Bahama's capital Nassau lies about 310 km (190 mi) off the southern coast of Florida and north of Cuba. The coral-based archipelago consists of around 700 islands and islets, and more than 2,000 cays (coral reefs). Just about 30 islands are inhabited. The Bahamas share maritime borders with Cuba, Haiti, the United States, and Turks and Caicos Islands (UK). English (official); some Creole among Haitian groups. Literacy: 93%. 389,000 (2019) 13,943 km². (5,383 sq. mi.); BS, BHS The College of The Bahamas became the University of The Bahamas in November 2016. Image: University of The Bahamas University of The Bahamas The Bahamas' premier tertiary institution with campuses throughout the archipelago. Climate: Semitropical to tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of the Gulf Stream. Government: Type: Constitutional parliamentary democracy. Independence: 10 July 1973 (from the UK). Constitution: 10 July, 1973. Religions: Baptist predominant (32%), Roman Catholic, Anglican, Evangelical Protestants, Methodist, Church of God. Natural resources: Salt, aragonite, timber, arable land. Agriculture - products: Citrus, vegetables; poultry. Exports - commodities: crawfish, aragonite, crude salt, polystyrene products


A virtual guide to Bahrain, officially the Kingdom of Bahrain, an island nation in the Middle East. The archipelago consists of the main island Al Bahrayn and some smaller islands and islets. The island state is situated in the Arabian Gulf (Persian Gulf), east of Saudi Arabia, north of Qatar. Bahrain is connected to Saudi Arabia by the King Fahd Causeway. The kingdom shares maritime borders with Iran, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. Bahrain covers an area of 741 km², making it slightly larger than Singapore (699 km²), or 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC. Arabic (official), English, Farsi, and Urdu are also widely spoken. 15.7 lakhs (2018) 741 km² ( 286 sq. mi.) BH Arabian Gulf University The University for the Arabian Gulf region. Gulf University Official website of the university. University of Bahrain University of Bahrain page provides also information on Bahrain. Climate : Arid; mild, pleasant winters with maximum temperatures average 20-30C (68-86F); very hot and humid from May-September, with average highs ranging from 30-40 C (86-104 F). Type: Constitutional hereditary monarchy. Independence: 15 August 1971 (from the UK). Natural resources: Oil, natural gas, fish, pearls. Agriculture products: Fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish. Industries: Petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism. Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles


A virtual guide to Bangladesh, an independent country since 1971, named officially People's Republic of Bangladesh. The country is situated in southern Asia in the Ganges River (Padma) delta on the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is bordered by India in west, north and east and has a short border with Myanmar (Burma) in south east. Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English is widely used. 16.14 crores (2018) 144 000 km² (55 813 sq. mi.) BD-BGD Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) The oldest institution for the study of Engineering and Architecture in Bangladesh. Independent University, Bangladesh Established in 1993. Jahangirnagar University Dhaka, established in 1970. North South University (NSU) Established in 1992. University of Chittagong Public university located in Chittagong, founded in 1965. University of Dhaka Oldest University of Bangladesh, estabilshed 1921. University Grants Commission of Bangladesh The apex body of all Government Funded Universities, with Information on Bangladesh Universities. Climate: Semitropical, monsoonal; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October). Type: Parliamentary democracy. Independence: 26 March 1971 (from Pakistan). Constitution: 1972 Natural resources: natural gas, lignite coal, limestones, ceramic, clay and glass sand, arable land, timber. Agriculture products: rice, jackfruit, jute, tobacco, sugarcane, pulses, oilseeds, spices, potatoes, vegetables, bananas, mangoes, coconut, tea and wheat. Industries: garments, jute, cotton, textile, tea, paper, newsprint, cement, fertilizer, sugar, engineering, electric cables , leather, fish. Exports - commodities: garments, knitwear and hosiery (80% of exports revenue), agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather


Destination Belgium, the low-lying country in Western Europe bordering the North Sea between France and the Netherlands, it borders Luxembourg and Germany in east and it shares maritime borders with the United Kingdom. The country occupies an area of 30,528 km², it is about three-fourths the size of neighboring Netherlands, or about the size of the U.S. state of Maryland. Dutch, French, German, Linguistic regions 11.2 million (2016) 30,528 km² (11,786 sq. mi.) BE-BEL Katholieke Universiteit Leuven One of the best European universities. University of Ghent UGent, is one of the major universities in the Dutch-speaking region, founded in 1817 as a Latin-speaking State University. Université Libre de Bruxelles Founded in 1834. University of Liège University of Liège was founded in 1817 Vrije Universiteit Brussel Flemish university with a specific ideological basis, namely Free Inquiry, founded in 1970. Royal Library Belgium Koninklijke Bibliotheek België; Bibliothèque royale Belgique (Dutch, French) Climate: Temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy Federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch. Independence: 1830 (from the Netherlands) Natural resources: Coal, natural gas, construction materials, silica sand, carbonates. Agriculture products: Sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk. Industries: Engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum.


Destination Belize, a country on the eastern coast of northern Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea in east. It was known as British Honduras until 1973. Belize was granted independence on 21 September 1981, it is since then a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Border countries are Guatemala and Mexico, and it shares maritime borders with Honduras. The country occupies an area of 22,966 km², it is about twice the size of Estonia, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Massachusetts. English (official), Creole, Spanish, Garifuna, Mayan. 361,000 (2015) 23,000 km² (8,867 sq. mi.) BZ University of Belize (UB) University of Belize Home Page. The University of Belize is a national, autonomous and multi-location institution in Belize. UB's main campus is located in the capital city, Belmopan. Climate: Tropical, hot and humid. Rainy season May to November; dry season February to May. Type: Parliamentary democracy. Independence: 21 September 1981 from the UK. Constitution: 21 September 1981. Natural resources: Arable land, timber, seafood, minerals. Agriculture Products: Sugar, citrus fruits and juices, bananas, mangoes, papayas, honey, corn, beans, rice, cattle (12.7% of GDP). Industries: Garment production, food processing, tourism, construction.


A virtual guide to Benin. The Republic of Benin is from north to south a long stretched country in West Africa, situated east of Togo and west of Nigeria, it is bordered to the north by Burkina Faso and Niger, in south by the the Bight of Benin, in the Gulf of Guinea, that part of the tropical North Atlantic Ocean which is roughly south of West Africa. Benin's coastline is just 121 km (75 mi) long. With an area of 112,622 km² the country is slightly larger than Bulgaria, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state Pennsylvania. Benin's former name, until 1975, was Dahomey. French (official), Fon and Yoruba in the south; Nagot, Bariba and Dendi in the north. 1.15 crores (2018) 112,622 km² (43,483 sq. mi.) BJ - BEN Ecole du Patrimoine Africain School of African Heritage, an institution for vocational training in heritage conservation in Benin. Tropical, average temperatures between 24 and 31 C. Humid in south; semiarid in north. Type: Republic under multiparty democratic rule. Independence: 1 August 1960 (fom France). Constitution: 10 December 1990. Natural resources: Small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber. Agriculture products: Cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts, livestock (2001) Industries: Textiles, food processing, construction materials, cement (2001) Exports - commodities: cotton, cashews, shea butter, textiles, palm products, seafood


Destination Bermuda, a Nations Online Project profile of the British overseas territory formerly known as the "Isle of Devils." The island is also known as the northeastern point of the mysterious Bermuda Triangle. The archipelago is a group of limestone islands atop of a flat, extinct submarine volcano, which rises more than 4,300 m (14,000 ft) from the ocean floor. Bermuda consists of the main island Bermuda (or Main Island), some adjacent islands, and about 170 plus small coral islands and islets in the North Atlantic Ocean. Bermuda is located 1,240 km (770 mi) east off the coast of South Carolina. English (official), Portuguese. 72 000 (2019) Area: 53 km² (20.6 sq. mi.). BM, BMU Bermuda College The website for Bermuda's publicly owned college, located at Stonington Avenue in Paget Parish. Climate: Semi-tropical, mild, humid. Government: Type: British Overseas Territory with significant autonomy. Constitution: 8 June 8 1968; amended 1989 and 2003. Natural resources: Limestone, tourism. Agriculture products: Bananas, citrus, vegetables, flowers, dairy products, honey. Industries: Tourism, international business (insurance and other financial services), light manufacturing. Exports - commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals.


Adventure Bhutan, a virtual guide to the "land of the dragon", officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, a small, land-locked nation in Asia, located in the eastern Himalaya mountains south of China (Xizang - Tibet Autonomous Region), bordering the Indian states of Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, it is also bordered by Nepal and Bangladesh. The country controls several key Himalayan mountain passes. Bhutan occupies an area of 38,394 km² making it somewhat smaller than Switzerland or about half the size of the US state of Indiana. Bhutan's landscape is mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna. Dzongka (official language), English (medium of instruction), Tshanglakha, Lhotsamkha ( Nepali) and Khenkha, Sharchop. 7.54 lakhs (2018) 38,394 km² (14,824 sq. mi.) BT- BTN The Centre for Bhutan Studies Autonomous research institute dedicated towards promoting research and scholarship on Bhutan; provides academic research papers on Bhutan. Royal Bhutan Institute of Technology Offers training in Civil and Electrical Engineering. Royal University of Bhutan The first university in Bhutan founded in 2003. Climate: Alpine to temperate to subtropical with monsoon season from June to September. Type: Democratic constitutional monarchy. Previously, various laws and Buddhist values guided the relationship between the state and the people. Constitution enacted 18 July 2008. National Day: 17 December Natural resources: Hydroelectric power, timber, gypsum, calcium carbide. Agriculture products: Rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs. Industries: Cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide. Exports - commodities: electricity (to India), ferrosilicon, cement, calcium carbide, copper wire, manganese, vegetable oil


Destination Bolivia, a country profile of the landlocked state in west-central South America. The country that is now Bolivia was once part of the ancient Inca empire. After the War of the Pacific (1879–84), a war between Chile and a Bolivian–Peruvian alliance, Bolivia lost access to the Pacific Ocean and became one of the two landlocked states in the Americas. It borders Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Peru. Spanish (official); Quechua, Aymara, Guarani. 11.5 million (2019) 1 million km² (424.164 sq. mi.) BO, BOL Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar Post-graduate university in Sucre (since 1985), with national headquarters in Quito, Ecuador (since 1992) and regional offices of Caracas, Venezuela, Bogotá, Colombia (since 2005) and La Paz. Universidad Católica Boliviana Oldest private university in Bolivia situated in La Paz. Universidad Mayor de San Andrés UMSA in La Paz is Bolivia's leading public university, founded in 1830. Universidad Mayor de San Simón UMMS is a Bolivian public university located in the city of Cochabamba. Climate: Varies with altitude--from humid and tropical to semiarid and cold. Type: Republic. Independence: 6 August, 1825. Constitution: 1967; revised 1994. Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower. Agriculture products: soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, timber. Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing Exports - commodities: natural gas, mineral ores, gold, soybeans and soy products, tin

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a Southeastern European country located in the western Balkans, bordering the Adriatic Sea, it was formerly one of the states of the former federation of Yugoslavia until it declared its independence in March 1992. BiH is bordered by Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia Bosnia and Herzegovina occupies an area of 51,200 km² (19,768 sq. mi.), making it somewhat smaller than neighboring Croatia, or slightly smaller than West Virginia. Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian (formerly "Serbo-Croatian"). 33.2 lakhs 51,200 km² (19,768 sq. mi.) BA Banja Luka University The official website. Sveuciliste u Mostaru The University of Mostar. Univerzitet "Dzemal Bijedic" Institution of higher education, Mostar. Univerzitet u Sarajevu The University of Sarajevo. Univerzitet u Tuzli The University of Tuzla. Climate Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long severe winters; mild, rainy winters in the southeast. Type: Parliamentary democracy. Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992) Natural resources: Deposits of coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower. Agriculture products: Wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock. Industries: Steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001) Exports - commodities: metals, clothing, wood products


A virtual guide to Botswana, a landlocked country in southern Africa. It is bordered by Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. With an area of 582,000 sq km the country is slightly larger than France, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Texas. Approximately two-thirds of the country lies within the Tropics. Botswana is well known for having some of the best wilderness and wildlife areas on the African continent. 38% of its total land area are devoted to national parks, reserves and wildlife management areas. English (official), Setswana, Ikalanga. 22.5 lakhs (2018) 582,000 km² (224,710 sq. mi.) BW Ministry of Education Official site of the ministry. University of Botswana Gaborone, founded 1982. University of Botswana Library Services (UBLIS) Its mission is to contribute to the University's endeavours in the advancement of learning and academic enquiry. Climate: Mostly subtropical, warm winters and hot summers. Type: Republic, parliamentary democracy. Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK). Natural resources: Diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver. Agriculture products: Livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts. Industries: Diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing; textiles. Exports - commodities: diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles


This page is about many aspects of "Brasil," the country that occupies about 50% of South America. Brazil is located in the central-eastern part of the continent, by far the largest portion of it lies south of the equator. Border countries are Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The country has an almost 7,500 km long coastline at the Atlantic Ocean. Brazilian Portuguese 20.95 crores 8.5 million km² (3 290 000 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than the USA BR - BRA Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro Pontifical Catholic University of Rio De Janeiro, founded in 1941. UCAM - Universidade Candido Mendes Candido Mendes University. Latin America's oldest private university was established in 1902. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro UFRJ is one of the largest federal universities in the country. Universidade de São Paulo Sao Paulo University. USP is a major institution of higher learning and research in Brazil. Climate: Mostly tropical or semitropical with temperate zone in the south. Type: Federative Republic. Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal). Natural resources:Iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, gemstones, oil, wood, and aluminum. Brazil has 12% of the world's fresh water. Agriculture products: Brazil is the biggest exporter of coffee, soybeans, beef, sugar cane, ethanol and frozen chickens. Other products: wheat, rice, corn, cocoa, and citrus. Industries:Textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment. Exports - commodities: transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles


A virtual guide to Brunei, a small oil-rich sultanate along the northern coast of the island of Borneo, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia. Brunei consists of two non-contiguous parts divided by a portion of the Malaysian state of Sarawak. The country shares maritime borders with China and Malaysia. Brunei has claimed a continental shelf/exclusive economic zone stretching 200 nautical miles from its coast, which extends Brunei territorial waters deep into the middle of the South China Sea. Malay, English, Chinese; Iban and other indigenous dialects. 4.29 lakhs (2018) 5,765 km² (2,226 sq. mi.). BN Ministry of Education Official website of the Ministry with information about Brunei's schoolsystem. Institute Technology of Brunei The academic programmes of the Institute are divided into two schools namely the School of Engineering and the School of Business management and Information Technology. Universiti Brunei Darussalam The Brunei University, founded in 1985. The Discover Brunei Course Discover Brunei course by Brunei University. Climate: Equatorial tropical; high temperatures, humidity, and rainfall. Type: Malay Islamic Monarchy. Independence: 1 January 1984. Constitution: 1959. Natural resources: Oil and natural gas. Agriculture products: Rice, vegetables, fruits; livestock, forestry, fish. Industries: Petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction. Exports - commodities: mineral fuels, organic chemicals Imports - commodities: machinery and mechanical appliance parts, mineral fuels, motor vehicles, electric machinery


Bulgaria (Bulgarian: ????????), officially the Republic of Bulgaria, a unitary state on the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe bordering the Black Sea in east. The country shares international borders with Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Turkey. The country occupies an area of 110,879 km², compared it is somewhat larger than Iceland (103,000 km²), or slightly larger than the U.S. state of Tennessee. Bulgarian 70 lakhs (2019) Area: 111,000 km² (42,857 sq. mi.) BG BGR Bulgarian Academy of Sciences National Academy of Bulgaria, founded in 1869. National Academy of Arts The oldest and most renowned school of arts in Bulgaria. New Bulgarian University The first private university in Bulgaria is based in Sofia. Paissii Hilendarski University of Plovdiv Largest institution of higher education in southern Bulgaria. Veliko Tarnovo University The St. Cyril and St. Methodius University is with 18,000 students among the largest universities in the country. Saint Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia. The Sofia University is the oldest institution of higher education in Bulgaria, established in 1888. Climate: Temperate continental, mild summers and cold, snowy winters. Type: Parliamentary Republic. Independence: 1908 (from the Ottoman Empire) Natural resources: Bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land. Agriculture products: Vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets. Industries: Electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel. Exports - commodities: clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels.

Burkina Faso

A virtual guide to Burkina Faso, the 'land of the upright/honest people'. Burkina Faso (formerly known as Upper Volta; French: Haute Volta) is a landlocked country located in the middle of West Africa's "hump." The northern part lies geographically in the Sahel zone, the transition zone between the Sahara Desert in north and the tropical savanna in south. Burkina's landscape offers one major scenario, flat, with some rocky cliffs in Centre-Nord region and at the Banfora Escarpment arround Bobo-Dioulasso, the country's second largest city. The country sits on an extensive plateau, it is bordered by Mali in north and north west, by Niger in north east, by Benin in south east and by Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Togo in south. Burkina covers an area of 274,222 km², this is about three times the size of Austria, or slightly larger than the U.S. state of Colorado. French, Mooré, Dioula, Fulfuldé, others 1.98 crores (2018) 274,200 km² (106,000 sq. mi.) BF Institute de recherche pour le développement Burkina Faso French science and technology research institute for research, consultancy and training. Université de Ouagadougou Official website of Ouagadougou University (in French) Climate: Sahelian; pronounced wet and dry seasons. Type: Parliamentary Republic Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France). Constitution: 11 June 1991 formally adopted; amended April 2000. Natural resources: Manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates, pumice, salt. Agriculture products: Cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock Industries: Cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold. Exports - commodities: gold, cotton, livestock


Destination Myanmar, a country in Southeast Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal south. It is bordered in north and northeast by China, in east by Laos and Thailand, in west by Bangladesh and the Indian states of Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. The country is also known as Burma and called the Golden Land. The country covers an area of 676,578 km², making it almost twice the size of Germany or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Texas. Burmese; Myanmar is a union of 135 ethnic groups with their own languages and dialects. 5.37 crores (2018) 676,578 km² (261,228 square miles). MM MMR Mandalay Technological University (MTU) MTU is the second senior engineering university in Myanmar, located in Patheingyi Township, Mandalay. University of Computer Studies, Yangon (UCSY) UCSY offers both undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as diploma programs in computer studies. University of Medicine 1 Yangon Oldest medical school in Myanmar. Yangon Technological University (YTU) YTU was established in 1924 as the Department of Engineering under the University of Rangoon (Yangon). University of Yangon Oldest and most well-known university in Myanmar, located in Kamayut, Yangon. (no working website; May 2017) Education in Burma (Myanmar) Myanmar related research papers and projects on the web. Climate: Tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April). Type: nominally civilian government (since 29th March 2011, when Burma's military handed over power). The new political system came into effect after an election in November 2010. Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988 when latest junta took power). The country's third and current constitution was published in September 2008. Burma has been under military authority since 1962. Natural resources: Timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, limestone, precious stones like jade, ruby and sapphires, natural gas, hydropower, and some petroleum. Agriculture Products: Rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane, hardwood, fish and fish products. Industries: Agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement. Exports - commodities: natural gas; precious stones including jade and burmite; wood products; pulses and beans; fish; rice; clothing; minerals,


A virtual guide to Burundi, a small landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region in central Eastern Africa bordering Lake Tanganyika in south west. The country shares borders with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Tanzania. With an area of 27,834 km², the country is somewhat smaller than half the size of Croatia, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Maryland. Rundi (Kirundi), and French (offiocial), Swahili (trade and governmental language) 1.12 crores (2018) 27,834 km² (10,746 sq mi) BI - BDI Université du Burundi It is the only public university in Burundi. Official university web site with information about its mission, its institutions and its organisation structure. (in French) Climate: Tropical equatorial, with wet and dry seasons, temperature varies with altitude. Type: Republic; democratically elected, post-transition government established 26 August 2005. Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium). Natural resources: Nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower. Agriculture products: Coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides. Industries: Light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components. Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides


Destination Cambodia, a virtual guide to Kampuchea (the local name for the country). The country is located in the southeastern part of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia, it is bordered by Vietnam to the east and south, Laos in northeast, Thailand in west/northwest, and by the Gulf of Thailand in west. With an area of 181,000 km² Cambodia is about half the size of Germany or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Oklahoma. Khmer (official) spoken by more than 95% of the population; some French still spoken; English increasingly popular as a second language. 1.62 crores (2018) 181,035 km² (69,900 sq. mi.) KH KHM Cambodia Rural School Project American Assistance for Cambodia (AAfC)/ Japan Relief for Cambodia (JRfC) are independent nonprofit organizations dedicated to providing opportunities for the youth and rural poor in Cambodia. Universities Royal Academy of Cambodia (RAC) RAC was established in 1965, it is the national academy and university of Cambodia. Royal University of Agriculture RUA was founded in 1964, it offers a Master program in agriculture and related fields. Royal University of Fine Arts University of Architecture and Urbanism, Archaeology, Choreographic Arts, Music and Visual Arts. (in Cambodian) Royal University of Law and Economics (RULE) RULE was established in 1948 as the National Institute of Law, Politics and Economics. It currently is offering undergraduate degree programs in the fields of law, economics, accounting and banking. National University of Management (NUM) NUM offers degrees in Business Administration, Tourism and Hospitality Economics. Climate: Tropical monsoon with rainy season June-Oct. and dry season Nov.-May. Type: Constitutional Monarchy The Royal Cambodian Government (RCG), a constitutional monarchy formed on the basis of elections internationally recognized as free and fair, was established on 24 September 1993. Head of State: His Majesty Samdech Preah Baromneath Norodom Sihamoni. Natural resources: abundant natural bio-diversity, oil and gas, timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential. Agriculture products: Rice, rubber, corn, coffee, vegetables, cashews, tapioca. Industries: Tourism, textiles and garments, Beverage, Food Processing, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining. Exports - commodities: clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear


A virtual guide to Cameroon, the country in Central Africa is bordered by the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) in south west. Cameroon borders Nigeria in north west, the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon and Equatorial Guinea in south, the Central African Republic and Chad in east, and it has a narrow lakefront at Lake Chad in north. With an area of 475,650 km², the country is almost as large as Spain or slightly larger than the US state of California. Its southern and coastal areas are characterized by dense vegetation, a vast river system and a hot, humid climate with abundant rainfall. French and English (both official) 2.52 crores (2018) 475,650 km² (183,650) sq. mi.) CM ASOY American School of Yaoundé Founded in 1964 primarily for children of American diplomats but it also serves students from all nationalities and religious groups. Ecole Nationale Superieur Polytechnique ENSP National Polytechnic School founded in 1971, Yaounde. Universities University of Douala The University of Douala is located in Cameroon's largest city. Université de Yaoundé I and Université de Yaoundé II - SOA The Universities of Yaounde are leading institutions of higher education in Cameroon, they will represent one of the five campuses of the new Pan African University (PAU), founded in 2011. (in French) Climate: Northern plains, the Sahel region--semiarid and hot (7-month dry season); Republic; with a strong central government dominated by president. Independence: 1 January 1960 (for areas formerly ruled by France) and 1 October 1961 (for territory formerly ruled by Britain). Constitution: 2 June 1972, last amended in January 1996. Natural resources: Oil, timber, hydroelectric power, natural gas, cobalt, nickel. Agriculture products: timber, coffee, tea, bananas, cocoa, rubber, palm oil, pineapples, cotton. Industries: Petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, and cotton.


Destination Canada, the second largest country in the world occupies most of the northern part of North America, covering the vast land area from the United States in south to the Arctic Circle in the north. It is a country of enormous distances and rich natural resources. Long time part of colonial North America, Canada became a self-governing colony in the mid 19th century (1867) while retaining ties to the British crown. English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), and 53 native languages. 3.76 crores (2019) 9.9 million km² (3.8 million sq. mi.); CA CAN Education, Science & Research Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada Up-to-date information on Canadian higher education. Canadian Communities Atlas Project An Internet based network of Community Atlases that will be accessible to schools and the world. Canadian Virtual University - Université Virtuelle Canadienne A partnership of universities across Canada, committed to delivering university-level programs that can be completed from anywhere in the country or beyond. Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences HSSFC promotes teaching, research, and scholarship in the humanities and social sciences. Study in Canada Informational site on educational studies in Canada. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Social sciences and humanities. Science Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) Canada from space - plus a remote sensing tutorial. Canadian Space Agency Be prepared for the future. The Royal Canadian Geographical Society Société géographique royale du Canada. National Museum of Science and Technology National Research Council Canada's premier science and technology research organization. The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada The national instrument for making strategic investments in Canada's capability in science and technology. Ontario Science Centre Climate: Varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north. Type: Confederation with parliamentary democracy. Independence:1 July 1867 (from the UK). Constitution: The amended British North America Act of 1867 patriated to Canada on 17 April 1982, Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and unwritten custom. (Constitution Act of 1982) Natural resources: Iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower. Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish. Industries: Transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products, petroleum and natural gas. Exports - commodities: motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Cape Verde

A virtual guide to the islands of Cabo Verde, or Cape Verde, an island nation on an archipelago of volcanic origin in the Atlantic Ocean off the northwestern coast of Africa, about 600 km west of Senegal. Cape Verde shares maritime borders with Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, and Senegal. Cape Verde is divided into two island groups, the Barlavento (windward) islands with the islands of Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, São Nicolau, Sal, and Boa Vista and the Sotavento (leeward) islands with the islands of Maio, Santiago, Fogo, and Brava. Portuguese (official); Crioulo (a blend of Creole Portuguese and West African) 5.44 lakhs (2018) 4,033 km² (1,557 sq. mi.) CV CPV Universidade de Cabo Verde University of Cape Verde was established in 2006, the in three locations: ISE (Instituto Superior de Educação - Institute of Education) is located in Praia, ISECMAR (Instituto Superior de Engenharias e Ciências do Mar - Institute of Marine Sciences and Engineering) is located in Mindelo and INIDA (Instituto Nacional de Investigação e Desenvolvimento Agrário - National Institute of Agricultural Research and Development) located in São Jorge dos Órgãos, Santiago (in Portuguese) Universidade Jean Piaget de Cabo Verde Official site of Jean Piaget University located in Praia, the university is operating a second location in Mindelo on São Vicente. (in Portuguese) Climate: Tropical dry, with two seasons. Dry season: November to July, tempered by trade winds. Rainy season: August to October. Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal). Constitution: 1982; revised 1992, 1995, and 1999. Natural resources: Salt, pozzolana (tuff), limestone. Agriculture products: Bananas, corn, beans, sugarcane, coffee, fruits, vegetables, livestock products. Industries: Fish and fish products, food and beverages, ship repair, furniture, metal products, tourism. Exports partners: Australia 83%, Spain 8.6% (2015)

Central African Republic

A virtual guide to the Central African Republic, known until 1958 as Ubanghi Shari, a landlocked country in Central Africa. The former French colony became independent in 1960. The CAR is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo to the south and Cameroon to the west. The country occupies an area of 622,984 km², making it somewhat larger than France, or slightly smaller than Texas. French (official), Sangho (national). 46.7 lakhs (2018) 623,000 km² (242,000 sq. mi.) CF Université de Bangui Bangui University is a public university located in the country's capital Bangui. International Network for Higher Education in Africa The site provides a brief overview of the country's higher education institutions. Climate: Tropical, ranging from humid equatorial in the south to Sahelo-Sudanese in the north; hot, dry winters with mild to hot, wet summers. Type: Republic. Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France) Natural resources: Diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil. Agriculture products: Timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco, foodcrops, livestock. Industries: Diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles


Destination China, a virtual guide to the Middle Kingdom, the most populated country on earth, which in turn is also a controversial nation. The People's Republic of China (PRC) is a sovereign state in East Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea. China is bordered by 14 countries: Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Vietnam. Furthermore it shares maritime borders with Brunei, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. PuTongHua (Mandarin), Wu (spoken in Shanghai), Yue (Cantonese) plus other dialects like Min, Hakka (Kejia), Gan and Xiang. 139.27 crores (2018) 9.6 million km² (about 3.7 million sq. mi.) CN -CHN Beijing University Peking University sometimes called Bei Da, is the National key university, the former "Metropolitan University" of the Qing Dynasty, opened in December 1898. China Education and Research Network Very comprehensive site by Ministry of Education about Education in China. Nan Kai University The former Nankai School changed 1919 to Private Nankai University, Tianjin. Northeastern University (NEU) Located in Shenyang of Liaoning Province, founded in 1923. Southeast University National Central University, founded 1902. Tianjin University First university in the history of modern Chinese education, founded 1895. Tsinghua University State key university, established 1911 as "Tsinghua Xue Tang", Beijing. Xiamen University Founded in 1921. Climate: From tropical in south to subarctic in north. Type: Communist party-led state Constitution: 4 December 1982. Head of state: President Xi Jinping Independence: Unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC; Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by a republic on 12 February 1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949. Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's largest hydropower potential. Agriculture products: Rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, pork, fish. Industries: Iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications.


Destination Colombia, a virtual guide to Colombia, a country in northwestern South America with a coastline on both, the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Colombia is bordered by Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela, it shares maritime borders with Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and the Cayman Islands (United Kingdom). With an area of 1,138,914 km², the country is somewhat larger than twice the size of France or slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of Texas. Spanish 49 million (2016) 1.134 million km² (440,000 sq. mi.), CO Pontivicia Universidad Javeriana Universidad de Antioquia Official website of the University of Antioquia, Medellín (in Spanish) Universidad de los Andes Bogotá Universidad EAFIT The official university website provides information about EAFIT and its study programs. Universidad La Gran Colombia Bogotá Universidad Nacional The National University of Colombia, a public, research university with branches in Bogotá, Medellín, Manizales and Palmira. Universidad Nacional / Medellín Universidad del Valle The University of Valle is a public, research university in Cali, Valle del Cauca. Climate: Tropical on coast and eastern plains, cooler in highlands. Type: Republic Independence: 20 July 1810. Natural resources: Coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nickel, gold, silver, copper, platinum, emeralds. Agriculture products: Coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp. Industries: Textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds.


A virtual guide to the Union of the Comoros, a sovereign island nation in the Indian Ocean east of Mozambique, off the east coast of the African continent and west of the northern tip of Madagascar. The Comoros consists of the four main islands: Ngazidja (French: Grande Comore), Mwali (French: Mohéli), Nzwani (French: Anjouan) and Maore (French: Mayotte), the contested island of Mayotte is administered by France. Nearest Countries to the Comoros are Mozambique, Tanzania, Madagascar, and the Seychelles. Shikomor (Comorian, a Swahili-Arabic blend), Arabic, French, Swahili. 8.32 lakhs (2018) 2,171 km² (838 sq. mi.) KM - COM Université des Comores Official website of the University of the Comoros (UDC) a publicly-owned institution founded in 2003, Moroni (in French; temporarily not online). Climate: Tropical marine Type: Republic. Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France, Mayotte remains under French administration). Constitution: Adopted by referendum on 23 December 2001. Natural resources: Few natural resources. Agriculture products: Vanilla, ylang-ylang, jasmine, cassis, cloves, perfume essences, copra, coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca) Industries: Tourism, perfume distillation. Exports partners: India, France, Germany , Saudi Arabia , Singapore, Netherlands, Mauritius Imports partners: China, Pakistan, France, UAE, India

Democratic Republic of the Congo

A virtual guide to Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly known as Zaire, a vast country in central sub-Saharan Africa, today also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or just the Congo. The DRC is bordered by 9 countries: Angola, Burundi, the Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. A 45 km wide strip of coastline in west provides the country's narrow access to the Atlantic Ocean. Five of the the famous African Great Lakes are lined up on DR Congo's eastern border: Lake Albert, Lake Edward, Lake Kivu, Lake Tanganyika, and Lake Mweru. French (Official). National languages: Lingala, Swahili, Kikongo, Tshiluba. 8.41 crores (2018) 2,344,858 km² (905 000 sq. mi) CD Ministère de l'Enseignement primaire, secondaire et professionnel Official website of the Ministry for Education. (in French) Université de Kinshasa The University of Kinshasa is the most important university in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was founded in 1954 under the Belgian colonial rule as Université Lovanium. (Site is offline) Université Kongo Site with information about the Kongo University at Kinshasa. Université Protestante au Congo The confessional Protestant University in the Congo (UPC) is a university located in the city of Kinshasa. Climate: Equatorial; ranges from tropical rainforest in the Congo River basin, hot and humid in much of the north and west, cooler and drier in the south central area and the east. Type: Republic; transitional regime highly centralized with executive power vested in the president. Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium). Constitution: 18 February 2006 Natural resources: Cobalt, copper, Columbite-tantalite (coltan) refined, coltan becomes tantalum, niobium, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal, hydropower, timber. Agriculture products: Coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products. Industries: mining (diamonds, copper, zinc), mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages), cement, commercial ship repair.

Costa Rica

Destination Costa Rica, a virtual guide to the republic in Central America, situated on the Isthmus of Panama. The country has coastlines on both, the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. It is bordered by Nicaragua in north and Panama in south east. The country covers an area of 51,100 km², this is about the size of Slovakia or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of West Virginia. Spanish, with a southwestern Caribbean Creole dialect of English spoken around the Limon area. 4.8 million (2015) 51,100 km² (19,729 sq. mi.) CR - CRI Empresarial University of Costa Rica Private institution of higher learning. Universidad de Costa Rica The University of Costa Rica is a public university with its main campus, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, in San Pedro Montes de Oca, province of San José. Universidad Latina de Costa Rica Latin University of Costa Rica (ULatina) is the largest private university in Costa Rica. Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica Costa Rica National Univerity has its main campus in the city of Heredia. (in Spanish) Climate: Tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands. Type: Democratic Republic Independence: 15 September (1821 from Spain) Constitution: 7 November 1949 Natural resources: Hydroelectric power, forest products, fisheries products. Agriculture products: Coffee, pineapples, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes; beef; timber. Industries: Microprocessors, food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products.

Cote Divoire

A virtual guide to Côte d'Ivoire (also known as Ivory Coast), a tropical country in southern West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea (North Atlantic Ocean), bordered in north by Mali and Burkina Faso, in west by Liberia and Guinea, and in east by Ghana. Ivory Coast covers an area of 322,463 km², compared it is slightly smaller than Poland, or slightly larger than the U.S. state of New Mexico. French (official); five principal language groups, the main ones are Diula (Dioula), Baule (Baoulé), Dan, Anyin and Senari. 2.51 crores (2018) 322,500 km² (124 500 sq. mi.) CI CIV University Félix Houphouët-Boigny The university, formerly known as University of Cocody, is situated in Cocody, a suburb of Abidjan. It is one of the elite universities in the country. Université des Sciences et Technologies de Côte d'Ivoire (UST-CI) University of Science and Technology of Ivory Coast. Université Catholique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest Catholic University of West Africa is situated in Abidjan. Climate: Tropical, semiarid in far north. Type: Republic. Independence: 7 August 1960. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower. Agriculture products: main export goods are coffee and cocoa beans, other products are: bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber and timber. Industries: Foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity, ship construction and repair. Exports - commodities: cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish.


Destination Cyprus, a profile of the Mediterranean island between the Middle East and Europe. The island, geographically already part of Asia (Middle East), is located about 80 km (50 mi) south of the coast of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt and east of Greece. The third-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea has a land area of 9,251 km². The island is shared by the Republic of Cyprus, Northern Cyprus (a country only recognized by Turkey), and the British Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Greek, Turkish, English. 11.7 lakhs (2018) 9,251 km² (3,572 sq. mi.) CY, CYP Cyprus Higher Education Official information website of the Higher Education System in Cyprus. Cyprus College The Cyprus College is the oldest University College in Cyprus; it was founded in 1961. University of Cyprus The University of Cyprus is a university in Nicosia and the most prestigious university in the Republic of Cyprus; it was established in 1989. Open University of Cyprus The Open University of Cyprus (OUC) was established in 2002 as the second State Institution of Higher Education in Cyprus. University of Nicosia The University of Nicosia is a private, co-educational tertiary education institution. Climate: Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Type: Republic. Independence: 16 August 1960 (from the UK). Constitution: 16 August, 1960. Natural resources: Copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment. Agriculture products: Potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables, poultry, pork, lamb, kids, dairy. Industries: Food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products.


Destination Cuba, a virtual guide to the largest Caribbean island. The country is situated in the western West Indies, between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, south of Florida and The Bahamas, north of Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Cuba shares maritime borders with The Bahamas, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, and the United States. Cuba is one of the islands of the Greater Antilles archipelago, the others are Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic and Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and the Cayman Islands. Spanish 1.13 crores (2018) 109,886 km². (42,427 sq. mi.) CU - CUB Universidades y centros de investigación List of universities and research centers in Cuba by the Ministerio de Educación Superior. Biblioteca Nacional "José Martí" The National Library of Cuba. (Spanish) Academia de Ciencias de Cuba The Academy of Science of Cuba. Universidad de La Habana The University of Havana, founded in 1728, greatest and oldest university in the Caribbean. Climate: Tropical, moderated by trade winds; dry season (November-April); rainy season (May-October). Type: Communist state; current government assumed power by force January 1, 1959. Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902). Natural resources: Nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber. Agriculture products: Sugar, tobacco, citrus and tropical fruits, coffee, rice, beans, meat, vegetables. Industries: Sugar, petroleum, tobacco, construction, nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, pharmaceuticals.

Czech Republic

Destination Czech Republic, also known as Czechia, a landlocked country in Central Europe, it is bordered by Austria, Germany, Poland, and Slovakia. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,867 km², making it somewhat smaller than neighboring Austria, and also slightly smaller than the US state of South Carolina. The country has a population of 10.56 million people (in 2016), capital and largest city is Prague, spoken languages is Czech, a West Slavic language. Czech, Slovak 1.07 crores (2020) 78,864 km² (30,449 sq. mi.) CZ CZE Academy of Fine Arts Prague. Center for Theoretical Study The Institute for Advanced Studies at Charles University and the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Charles University One of the oldest university in central Europe, founded on April 7th. 1348 by Charles IV. Czech Technical University Masaryk University Located in Brno, year created: 1919. Palacky University Located in Olomouc, founded in 1573. Jihoceská univerzita v Ceských Budejovicích The University of South Bohemia in Ceské Budejovice. Západoceská univerzita v Plzni The University of West Bohemia is located in Pilsen. Climate: Temperate; mild summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters, west winds prevail. Parliamentary Republic. Independence: The Czech Republic was established 1 January 1993 (former Czechoslovak state established 1918). Constitution: Signed 16 December 1992 Natural resources: Coal, coke, kaolin, lignite, magnesite, timber, uranium. Agriculture products: Wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry. Industries: Metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments. Exports partners: Germany, Slovakia, Poland, UK, France, Austria Imports partners: Germany, Poland, China, Slovakia, Netherlands, Austria


Destination Denmark, a virtual guide to the Kingdom of Denmark, a Scandinavian country situated on the Jutland Peninsula and several islands, north of Germany. The last dependencies of Denmark are the Faroe Islands? and Greenland. The country shares maritime borders with Norway, Sweden, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Denmark covers an area of 42,916 km², making it slightly larger than the Netherlands, or slightly less than twice the size of the US state of Massachusetts. Danish, some German, Faroese, Greenlandic. English is the predominant second language. 58.1 lakhs (2019) 43,094 km² (16,638 sq. mi.) DK, DNK Københavns Universitet Founded in 1479, the University of Copenhagen is the oldest and largest university and research institution in Denmark. Roskilde University Danish public university, located in Roskilde on the island of Zealand. University of Aalborg Established in 1974, the university is located in the city of Aalborg, it became the fifth university in Denmark. University of Aarhus Denmark's second oldest and largest university, founded in 1928. University of Southern Denmark The University has six campuses, mainly located in the southern part of Denmark. Climate: Temperate. The terrain, location, and prevailing westerly winds make the weather changeable. Type: Constitutional Monarchy. Constitution: 5 June 1953. Agriculture products: Barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish. Industries: Iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills. Exports - commodities: machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, pharmaceuticals, furniture, windmills.


A virtual guide to Djibouti, officially the Republic of Djibouti, a small country on the northeastern coast of Africa to the Red Sea and the Bab-el-Mandeb strait. Djibouti is bordered by Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia, and it shares maritime borders with Yemen. Due to its geographic location at the Gulf of Aden, the barren country is of considerable geopolitical interest, Djibouti controls access and egress to a major waterway, the Red Sea and the Suez Canal, one of the world's busiest shipping routes. Djibouti was controlled by France, especially the French Foreign Legion, until 1977, in 2002, the United States established America's largest military base in Africa here (Camp Lemonnier). French and Arabic (official); Somali and Afar widely used. 9.59 lakhs (2018) 23,200 km² (8,880 sq mi) DJ Ministère de l'Education Nationale Official website of the Ministry of Education (in French). Centre d'Études et de Recherches Scientifiques de Djibouti CERD Scientific Research Center of Djibouti in the fields of Languages, Geoscience and New Technologies. Université de Djibouti Djibouti University is a public institution of higher education and research, it is the oldest University in Djibouti, established in 2006 (in French). Climate: Torrid and semi-arid, fresh season, from October to April (average 25°). Type: Republic. Constitution: Ratified September 1992 by referendum. Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France). Natural resources: Gold, clay, granite, marble, minerals (salt, perlite, gypsum, limestone), petroleum, geothermal areas. Agriculture products: livestock, fishing, fruits, vegetables. Industries: Banking and insurance (12.5% of GDP), transportation (Djibouti harbour), tourism, construction, agricultural processing, salt. Exports partners: Somalia, USA, Yemen, UAE Imports partners: China, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, India


Destination Dominica, a virtual guide to the "Nature Island of the Caribbean". Dominica is situated in the eastern Caribbean, south of Guadeloupe and north of Martinique. Dominica was the last of the Caribbean islands to be colonized by Europeans due to the fierce resistance of the native Caribs. English. A french based Creole (Patois) is widely spoken by residents. 71,625 (2018) 751 km² (290 sq. mi DM DMA Dominica Academy of Arts and Sciences Non-profit organisation disigned to augment the development effort in the Commonwealth of Dominica by propelling new initiatives in arts and sciences that would enhance the quality of life on the island. Dominica State College Formerly Clifton Dupigny Community College, is a national college, located in the northern part of Roseau. University of the West Indies Centre Information on the Dominica University Centre. Climate: Tropical; climate and temperatures can vary drastically dependent upon the season and region. Type: Parliamentary democracy; republic within commonwealth. Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK). Constitution: November 1978. Natural resources: Timber, hydropower, arable land. Agriculture products: Bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts, cocoa; forest and fishery potential not exploited. Industries: Soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra. Exports - commodities: bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges

Dominican Republic

Destination Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola. The country is bordering the Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Caribbean Sea in south. Hispaniola is home to the independent nations of Haiti in west and the Dominican Republic, which occupies the eastern part. The nation covers an area of 48,310 km² making the Dominican Republic slightly smaller than Slovakia or about the size of the U.S. states of Vermont and New Hampshire combined. Spanish 1.06 crores (2018) 48,310 km² (18,652 sq. mi. DO Altos de Chavón School of Design The School of Design offers three majors: Graphic Design, Fashion Design, and Fine Arts/Illustration. Universidad Abierta Para Adultos The university was founded in 1991, it has campuses in Santiago (SEDE), Santo Domingo Oriental, and Cibao Oriental (Nagua). Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra PUCMM is the first private, Roman Catholic, coeducational, university located in the Dominican Republic. Universidad Católica Santo Domingo UCSD is a private Catholic university in Santo Domingo. Universidad Nacional Pedro Henríquez Ureña UNPHU is a private, coeducational, university in Santo Domingo. Universidad del Caribe A university in Santo Domingo. Climate: Maritime semitropical, with an average yearly temperature of 26°C (78°F). Type: Representative democracy. Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti). Restoration of independence, 16 August 1863. Constitution: 28 November 1966; amended 25 July 2002 Agriculture products: Sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs. Industries: Tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco. Exports - commodities: gold, silver, cocoa, sugar, coffee, tobacco, meats, consumer goods Exports - partners: USA, Haiti, Canada, India Imports - commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals


A virtual guide to Ecuador, a republic in northwestern South America. The country is bordered by the Pacific Ocean in west, by Colombia in north and by Peru in south east and south and it shares maritime borders with Costa Rica. Ecuador covers an area of 283,561 km², compared, it is somewhat smaller than Italy (301,318 km²) or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Nevada. Spanish (official), indigenous languages, especially Quichua, the Ecuadorian dialect of Quechua. 1.71 crores (2018) 283,561 km² (109.483 sq. mi.) EC ECU Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar Quito Universidad Nacional de Loja Loja Universidad San Francisco de Quito Quito, founded in December 1534 (in Spanish). Climate: Varied, mild year-round in the mountain valleys; tropical, hot and humid in coastal and Amazonian jungle lowlands. Republic. Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain). Constitution: 10 August 1998. Agriculture products: Bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp. Industries: Petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals. Exports - commodities: petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp, cacao, coffee, wood, fish Exports - partners: USA , Chile, Peru, Vietnam, Colombia Imports - commodities: industrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods


Destination Egypt, a transcontinental country situated in northeastern Africa and on the Sinai Peninsula in Western Asia (Middle East). The country has a coastline at the Mediterranean Sea in north, and the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea in east. It is bordered by Libya in west, the Palestinian territory (Gaza Strip) and Israel in north east, and Sudan in south. Egypt shares maritime borders with Cyprus, Greece, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. Modern Egypt became independent in 1922. From 1958 until 1961 Egypt was united with Syria as the United Arab Republic. Arabic (official), English, French 92.4 million (2017) 1 million sq. km (386 000 sq. mi.) EG EGY Ain Shams University The third Egyptian University, founded in 1950. Al-Azhar University Chief center of Islamic and Arabic learning in the world, founded in 970. Cairo University Giza, largest university in the Middle East, founded in 1908, it is the oldest university in Africa. Central Library Cairo University The website of the library (by now only in Arabic). Climate: Dry, hot summers; moderate winters Type: Republic run by a Military junta. Independence: 1922 (from the UK) Constitution: 1971 Agriculture products: Cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats. Industries: Textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals. Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food Exports - partners: Saudi Arabia, Italy, Turkey , UAE , USA , UK , India Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels Imports - partners: China, Germany, USA, Turkey, Russia, Italy, Saudi Arabia

El Salvador

A virtual guide to El Salvador the "Land of the volcanoes", a tropical, mountainous country in the center of Central America, bordering the Pacific Ocean in south, Guatemala in west and Honduras in north, and it shares maritime borders with Nicaragua. It is the only Central American country without a Caribbean coastline. Spanish 64.2 lakhs (2018) 21,041 km² (8,123 sq. mi.) SV SLV Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas" Official website of the San Salvador located private university. Universidad de El Salvador (UES) The official site of the university, the oldest and one of the most prominent educational institutions in El Salvador. It serves as the national university of the country (in Spanish). Universidad Francisco Gavidia The official university site (in Spanish). Universidad Tecnologica de El Salvador Official site with university, library and campus information (in Spanish). Climate: Semitropical, tropical on coast; temperate in uplands, distinct wet and dry seasons. Type: Republic. Independence: on 15 September 1821 (from Spain). Constitution: 20 December 1983. Agriculture products: Coffee, sugar, livestock, corn, poultry, and sorghum Industries: Food and beverage processing, textiles, footwear and clothing, chemical products, petroleum products, electronics. Exports - commodities: offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, textiles and apparel, gold, ethanol, chemicals, electricity, iron and steel manufactures Exports - partners: USA, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Imports - commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity Imports - partners: USA, Guatemala, China, Mexico, Honduras


A virtual guide to Eritrea, an East African country with a coastline on the Red Sea. The state of Eritrea is bordered by Sudan in west, by Ethiopia in south and by Djibouti in south east. The country shares also maritime borders with Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The former Italian colony became part of a federation with Ethiopia in 1947, in 1952 Eritrea was annexed by Ethiopia. The country became independent in 1993. Tigrinya (Tigrigna), Arabic, English, Tigré (second major language) and other Cushitic languages 6 million 117,600 km². (45,405 sq. mi. Er ERI National Board for Higher Education Eritrean institution for higher education in the arts,sciences, business and economics, law, education, engineering, agriculture and health science. Climate: Temperate in the mountains and hot in the lowlands, hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast;. Single-party presidential republic. In 2004 the U.S. State Department declared Eritrea a Country of Particular Concern (CPC) for its alleged record of religious persecution. Natural resources: Gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish. Agriculture products: Sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal; livestock, goats; fish. Industries: Food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles. Exports - commodities: Copper Ore, Precious Metal Ore, Coffee, Precious Stones. Imports - commodities: Cars, Rubber Tires, Machinery, Petroleum Products, Food, Manufactured Goods.


Destination Estonia, a virtual guide to the Baltic country on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The Eastern European country is borded by Latvia and Russia, and shares maritime borders with Finland and Sweden. The former Soviet republic became independent in 1991. With an area of 45,227 km² the country is slightly larger than Denmark or slightly smaller than the U.S. states of New Hampshire and Vermont combined. Estonian (eesti keel), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish 13.3 lakhs (2020) 45,227 km² (17,462 sq. mi.) EE, EST Eesti Humanitaarinstituut The Estonian Institute of Humanities, an independent university established in 1988. Eesti Instituut The Estonian Institute provides information material on Estonia, its culture and traditions. Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu The National Library of Estonia - The custodian of Estonias national memory and heritage. Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia Estonian Academy of Sciences, develop and represent Estonian science. Estonian Academy of Arts The former Tallinn Applied Art School, founded in 1914. Tallinna Tehnikaülikool The Tallinn Technical University, founded in 1918 as an Estonian technical institution. Tartu Ülikool The University of Tartu, largest and oldest university in Estonia, established in 1632. Tiigri Hype An Estonian national program to increase Estonian school education quality utilizing modern information and communication technology. Climate: Temperate, with four seasons of near-equal length. Type: Parliamentary Democracy.Constitution: On 28 June 1992 Estonians ratified a constitution based on the 1938 Natural resources: Oil shale, phosphorite, limestone, blue clay. Agriculture products: Potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish. Industries: Engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications. Exports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipmen, food products and beverages, mineral fuels, wood and wood products metals, furniture, vehicles and parts, chemicals Exports - partners: Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Russia, Lithuania, Germany, Norway Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, mineral fuels, food and food products, vehicl%, chemical products, metals Imports - partners: Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Sweden, Latvia, Poland, Russia, Netherlands, China


A virtual guide to Ethiopia, the land formerly known as Abyssinia. Ethiopia is a landlocked country on the Horn of Africa, in the east of the continent. It is bordered by Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Somaliland (Somalia). Ethiopia covers an area of 1,126,829 km², this is about twice the size of France or the U.S. state of Texas. Highest elevation is Mount Ras Dashen with 4620 m. Amharic (official), Afan Oromo, Tigrinya, Gurage, Somali, Arabic 10.92 crores (2018) 1.1 million km² (440 000 sq. mi.) ET ETH Addis Ababa University The state university in Addis Ababa was founded in 1950. The site provides information about the university and its departments. Ethiopian Distance Learning Association Virtual School of Ethiopian Studies. SchoolNet A national ICT system for distance education, government data network and Internet services. Climate: Temperate in the highlands; tropical in the lowlands; dry season from October through May; wet season from June to September. Federal parliamentary democracy. New constitution adopted in 1995. Natural resources: Small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower. Agriculture - products: Cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane, potatoes, qat; hides, cattle, sheep, goats. Industries: Food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement. Exports - commodities: coffee, oilseeds, edible vegetables including khat, gold, flowers, live animals, raw leather products, meat products Exports - partners: Switzerland, China, USA, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Germany Imports - commodities: machinery and aircraft, metal and metal products, , electrical materials, petroleum products , motor vehicles, chemicals and fertilizers Imports - partners: China, USA, Saudi Arabia, India


Destination Fiji, a virtual guide to the island group in the South Pacific Ocean about 3,000 km east of Australia and 2,000 km north of New Zealand. The archipelago consists of a group of more than 330 islands, of which about one hundred are inhabited. The two major islands are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. Highest point is an extinct volcano known as Mount Tomanivi (Toamiivi; 1,324 m) on Viti Levu. The archipelago enjoys a tropical marine climate with only slight seasonal temperature variations English (official), Fijian, Hindi 8.83 lakhs (2018) 18,333 km² () FJ FIJ University of the South Pacific Premier institution of tertiary education in the Pacific region, jointly owned by the governments of twelve island countries, USP is an international centre of excellence for teaching, research and consulting on all aspects of Pacific life. University of the South Pacific Libraries The Main Library of the University of the South Pacific based at Laucala Campus, Suva, Fiji. Climate: Tropical maritime; only slight seasonal temperature variation. Type: Parliamentary Democracy. Independence (from U.K.): 10 October 1970. Constitution: July 1997 (suspended May 2000, reaffirmed March 2001). Natural resources: Timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower. Agriculture products: Sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish. Industries: Tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries. Exports - commodities: sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses, coconut oil, mineral water


Destination Finland, a virtual guide to the parliamentary republic in Northern Europe. The country borders the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia, and the Gulf of Finland, it maintains land borders with Norway, Sweden, and Russia, and it shares maritime borders with Estonia. Formerly a grand duchy in the Russian empire, the country became independent in 1917. Finland is since then a formally neutral country, and like Sweden not a member of NATO. Finnish, Swedish (both official); small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities. 55.2 lakhs (2019) 338,145 km² (130,558 sq. mi.) FI, FIN CIMO Discover Finland The Finnish National Agency for Education provides information about education, training and youth issues in Finland. Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration Helsinki University of Technology Official site of the largest, oldest and most diversified university of technology and architecture in Finland. University of Helsinki Finland's largest university. Lapin yliopisto The University of Lapland with Faculties for Art and Design, Business and Tourism, Education, Law and Social Sciences. University of Oulu Official site of this science and learning institution. University of Vaasa A multidisciplinary, business-oriented university in the city of Vaasa. Climate: Northern temperate. Type: Constitutional republic. Independence: 6 December 1917 (from the Russian Empire). Constitution: 17 July 1919, 1 March 2000. Natural resources: Timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone. Agriculture products: Barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish. Industries: Metal products, electronics, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing. Exports - commodities: electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains


Destination France, a Nations Online Project country profile of the "Grande Nation." France is located on the western edge of Europe, bordered by the Bay of Biscay (North Atlantic Ocean) in the west, by the English Channel in the northwest, and by the North Sea in the north. France borders Belgium and Luxembourg in the northeast, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy in the east, the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco, Spain and Andorra in the south. In addition, France shares maritime borders with the United Kingdom. French 67 million (2020) 551,500 km² (220,668 sq. mi.) FR - FRA Campus France Campus France is a public organization which promotes French higher education and vocational training for foreigners. ENA - École Nationale d'Administration The National School of Administration is a French grande école, created in 1945 by French President, Charles de Gaulle. École Centrale Paris École Centrale Paris was the first grande école. In 2015, École Centrale Paris merged with Supélec to form CentraleSupélec, a constituent institute of the University of Paris-Saclay. École Polytechnique École Polytechnique is one of the most prestigious engineering schools in France. Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Paris - ESSEC Selective French business school with campuses in Paris, Berlin, London, Madrid, Turin, and Warsaw. Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris Sciences Po is a recognized university for politics and international studies in Paris. Université de Montpellier The University of Montpellier was the first faculty of medicine in France and is one of the oldest universities in Europe, founded in 1220 (in French) Climate: Generally cool to cold winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral. Type: Republic. Constitution: The Constitution of 4 October 1958. Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, gypsum, timber, and fish. Agriculture products: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes, beef, dairy products, and fish. Industries: machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics, textiles, food processing, and tourism. Exports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, and beverages. Exports partners: Germany, Spain, Italy, USA, Belgium, UK Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals.

French Guiana

Guiana (Guyane) was an overseas department of France and is now a French region (région), located at the central northern coast of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean in north. Countries with international borders to French Guiana are Brazil and Suriname. With an area of 83,534 km², the country is about the size of Austria, or slightly larger than the U.S. state of South Carolina. This page aims to give you an overview of French Guiana's art, culture, people, environment, geography, history, economy and government. French 2.91 lakhs (2020) 83,534 km GF Guyane-é A guide to education in French Guiana (in French) Académie de la Guyane Official site of the Academy (in French) Université des Antilles et de la Guyane Official site of the University (in French) Climate: Equatorial tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation. Government: Former French overseas département. Became a French region and was made part of France proper. Natural resources: Bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), petroleum, kaolin, fish, niobium, tantalum, clay. Agriculture products: Corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sugar, cocoa, vegetables, bananas; cattle, pigs, poultry. Industries: Construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining.


Gabon, a country at the Equator in West-Central Africa bordering the Atlantic Ocean in west is bordered by Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, and the Republic of the Congo. With an area of 267,668 km², the country is somewhat larger than the United Kingdom, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Colorado. Gabon has a population of estimated 1.5 million people. Capital and largest city is Libreville. Spoken languages are French (official) and a variety of Bantu languages. French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi 21.2 lakhs (2018) 267,667 km² (103,347 sq. mi.) GA Omar Bongo University An autonomous state institution and the national university, Libreville (no website). XXINHEA: Gabon Higher Education Profile Profile of higher education practice in Gabon by International Network for Higher Education in Africa. Climate: Hot and humid with two rainy (February - May main rainy season) and two dry seasons (May - September main dry season). Type: Republic; multiparty presidential regime. Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France). Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, diamond, niobium, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore, hydropower. Agriculture products: Cocoa, coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber; cattle; okoume (a tropical softwood); fish. Industries: Petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, and gold mining; chemicals; ship repair; food and beverage; textile. Exports - commodities: crude oil, timber, manganese, uranium Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, construction materials


A virtual guide to Gambia, a West African nation bordering the North Atlantic Ocean in west. The sub-tropical country is a narrow strip of land on either side of the Gambia River, just 48 km (29 mi) at its widest point. Within the country, the Gambia River is navigable the entire length, it is Gambia's chief transport artery. The smallest country on mainland Africa occupies an area of 11,295 km², it is about the size of one third of Belgium or slightly less than twice the size of Delaware. The former British colony forms an enclave within Senegal with the exception of its coast. English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula (Pulaar), Jola, other indigenous languages. 22.8 lakhs (2018) 11,300 sq. km. (4 360 sq. mi.) GM Department of State for Education Provides information on the Gambia's education plans and programms. University of the Gambia Institution of higher education located in Serrekunda. It is the only university in the country. Global Partnership for Education - Gambia The Global Partnership for Education supports 65 developing countries. PAGEANT PAGEANT stands for Projects Aiding Gambian Education And Natural Talent. It was established as a UK Charity in 2002 specifically to support education and related projects in The Gambia. Type: Civilian. Independence: 18 February 1965 (from the UK). Constitution:16 January 1997. Climate: Tropical; hot rainy season (June to Nov.); cooler, dry season (Nov. to May). Natural resources: Fish, titanium, tin, zircon, silica sand. Agriculture products: Peanuts, rice, millet, sorghum, fish, palm kernels, vegetables, livestock, forestry. Industries: Peanut products, construction, telecommunications, brewing; tourism. Exports - commodities: peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactures, fuel, machinery and transport equipment


Destination Georgia, the south Caucasian country bordering the Black Sea in west. The country is located at the crossroads between Western Asia and Eastern Europe. It shares borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, and Turkey. Georgia has a total area of 69,700 km², compared it is about the size of Ireland (Republic of), or slightly smaller than South Carolina, or slightly larger than West Virginia. Georgian (official), Abkhaz also official language in Abkhazia. 37.3 lakhs (2018) 69,700 km² (26,911 sq. mi.). 20% GE Georgian Technical University The largest technical university of Georgia is located in Tbilisi. Tbilisi State University Tbilisi State University is a public research university, it was the first University in the Caucasus, founded in 1918. Climate: Generally moderate; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast with cold winters in the mountains. Type: Republic. Independence: 9 April, 1991, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declared independence from the U.S.S.R. Constitution: 17 October, 1995. Natural resources: Forests, hydropower, nonferrous metals, manganese, iron ore, copper, citrus fruits, tea, wine. Agriculture products: Citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock. Industries: Steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese and copper), chemicals, wood products, wine. Exports - commodities: vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores Imports - commodities: fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals


Destination Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, a Country Profile of the sovereign state in Central Europe. Germany borders the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, and Denmark to the north, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France to the west, Switzerland, and Austria in the south, the Czechia and Poland in the east. Additionally, it shares maritime borders with Sweden and the United Kingdom. German, second languages: English, French, Turkish. 8.3 crores (2019) 357 031 km² (137 850 sq. mi.) DE - DEU Deutsche Bildungsserver (DBS) Information portal on the German federal education system. Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (AIP) The key topics of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP) are cosmic magnetic fields, solar- and stellar activities, and extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology. Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften The Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities is a learned society with a three-hundred-year-old tradition; 79 Nobel Prize winners have shaped its history. Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie The German Psychological Society is a registered association of qualified psychologists who are active in research and teaching. Climate: Germany generally has a moderate continental climate without sustained periods of cold or heat; the north offers a maritime climate; in the south, in the Alpine regions, mountain climate prevails. Type: Democratic-parliamentary federal state Founded: 1949 (Basic Law, i.e., Constitution, promulgated on 23 May 1949). On 3 October 1990, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic unified under Article 23 of the FRG Basic Law. Natural resources: Coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land. Agriculture products: Potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages, cattle, pigs, poultry. Industries: Among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles. Exports - commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products. Imports - commodities: machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products.


A virtual guide to Ghana, formerly known as the Gold Coast, a country in western Africa just north of the Equator. Situated between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo, and bordered by Burkina Faso in north and by the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) in south. The country covers an area of 238,533 km², making it slightly smaller than the UK, or also slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Oregon. English (official), Akan (which includes Asante Twi, Akwapim Twi, Akyem, and Fanti 28.3 million (2016) 238,391 km² (92,100 sq. mi.). GH Education in Ghana Information about the educational system in Ghana. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST a centre of excellence in Africa for teaching in Science and Technology. University of Cape Coast Ghana The University of Cape Coast was established in 1962, one of the rare sea front Universities in the World. University of Ghana The university of the nation. Climate: Tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north. Type: Multiparty Democracy. Independence: 6 March 1957. Constitution: Entered into force 7 January 1993. Natural resources: Gold, timber, diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish. Agriculture products: Cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber Industries: Mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building. Exports - commodities: oil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products Imports - commodities: capital equipment, refined petroleum, foodstuffs


Destination Greece, a Nations Online profile of Hellas, the country in the Mediterranean, occupying the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. The Hellenic Republic (the official name) is composed of two main peninsulas and some thousand islands in the Aegean (east) and the Ionian seas (west of the mainland). The country is bordered by Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey, and North Macedonia. Greece shares maritime borders with Cyprus, Egypt, Italy, and Libya. With an area of 132 000 km², Greece is slightly larger than half the size of the United Kingdom, or somewhat smaller than the US state of Alabama. Greek 99% (official); Turkish (Northern Greece), English. 1.07 crores (2019) 132,000 km² (51,146 sq. mi.) GR, GRC Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Prestigious AUTh is the largest university in Greece, founded in 1925. Athens University of Economics and Business University-level education in Economics and Business, founded in 1920. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens The first university in the newly established Greek state (in 1828). It is commonly known as the University of Athens (UoA), the public university in Athens was founded in 1837. National Technical University of Athens N.T.U.A. The oldest educational institution in Greece in the field of technology was founded in 1836. University of Crete High-ranking multi-disciplinary, research-oriented university on the island of Crete. Climate: Mediterranean; mild, wet winter and hot, dry summer. Type: Parliamentary republic. Independence: 1830 (from the Ottoman Empire). Constitution: 11. June 1975, amended March 1986, April 2001. Natural resources: Bauxite, lignite, magnesite, oil, marble; Agriculture Products. Agriculture products:Wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products. Industries:Tourism; food and tobacco processing, textiles; chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum. Exports - commodities: food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals


A virtual guide to Greenland. First of all Greenland is not a continent even if it looks like one on many maps, no it is just the world's largest island. And it is cold, about 80% of its surface is ice-capped. Kalaallit Nunaat (the Inuit name for the island) is not an independent state but a self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark. Greenland shares maritime borders with Canada, Iceland, and Norway. Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English 56,025 (2018) 2,166,086 km² (836,297 sq. mi.) GL GRL Ilisimatusarfik The University of Greenland. Grønlands Naturinstitute Displays the work of the institute. (in Dansk and Greenlandic) Climate: Arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters. Type: Parliamentary Democracy within a constitutional monarchy. Dependency status: Part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979 Natural resources: Fish, seals, whales, gold, niobium, tantalite, uranium, iron, diamonds, ice, water, hydropower. Agriculture products: Forage crops, garden and greenhouse vegetables; sheep, reindeer; fish Industries: Fish processing (mainly prawns and Greenland halibut), handicrafts, hides and skins, small shipyards, mining Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 91% (2015 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products


Destination Grenada, the island nation of Grenada which consists of the main island of Grenada, known as the "Spice Island", and and 8 smaller satellite islands, Carriacou, Petit Martinique, Ronde Island, Caille Island, Diamond Island, Large Island, Saline Island, and Frigate Island. The area of Grenada is 344 km². English (official). 1.11 lakhs (2018) 344 km² (133 sq mi) GD St. George's University True Blue Campus. Windward Island Research and Education Foundation Founded in 1994, WINDREF seeks to advance health and environmental development through multi-disciplinary research and education programs. Climate: Tropical; tempered by the steady and cooling trade winds. Type: Constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style Parliament. Independence: 7 February 1974 (from UK). Constitution: 19 December 1973-Coming into operation 7 February 1974. Natural resources: Timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors. Agriculture products: Bananas, cocoa, spices like nutmeg, cinnamon, ginger and vanilla, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables. Industries: Food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction. Exports - commodities: nutmeg, bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace Imports - commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel


Destination Guatemala, a virtual guide to "alma de la tierra", the soul of the earth. The largely mountainous country is located in Central America south east of Mexico. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean in south, and it has a narrow coastline on the Caribbean Sea. Border countries are Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, and Mexico. The country is home to more than 30 volcanoes, many of them still active. With an area of 109,000 km² (42,085 sq. mi.), Guatemala is about the size of Bulgaria, or slightly larger than the US state of Kentucky. Spanish, 24 indigenous languages (principally K'iche', Kaqchikel, Q'eqchi', and Mam) 1.72 crores (2018) 109,000 km² (42,085 sq. mi.) GT GTM Universidad del Istmo UNIS in Guatemala City. Universidad del Valle de Guatemala Founded in 1966. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala The University of San Carlos of Guatemala, founded 1676. Universidad Francisco Marroquín Founded in 1971. Universidad Mariano Gálvez de Guatemala Founded 1966. Universidad Rafael Landívar Founded in 1961. Universidad Rural de Guatemala Ciudad de Guatemala. Climate: Tropical on coasts, temperate in highlands. Type: Constitutional democratic republic. Constitution: May 1985; amended November 1993. Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain). Natural resources: Petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower. Agriculture products: Sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens. Industries: Sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism. Exports - commodities: sugar, coffee, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, manufacturing products, precious stones and metals, electricity Imports - commodities: fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity, mineral products, chemical products, plastic materials and products


A virtual travel guide to Guinea-Bissau, a tropical nation with a coastline at the Atlantic Ocean in West Africa, situated between Senegal and Guinea. The country consists of a larger continental part and a smaller insular part that includes the Bijagós Archipelagos. In former times the region of today Guinea-Bissau was part of the Kaabu Empire, a Mandinka kingdom (1537–1867) and a former province of the Mali Empire. The entire country became a Portuguese colony in the 19th century, known as Portuguese Guinea. In September 1973 the country declared independence as Guinea-Bissau. Portuguese (official), Crioulo, French, many indigenous languages: 18.7 lakhs (2018) 36,000 km² (14,000 sq. mi). GW GNB Universidade Amílcar Cabral The only public university in the country is located in Bissau. (no website by now, July 2017) Guinea-Bissau still way behind on education IRIN news article about education in Guinea-Bissau. Climate: Tropical; generally hot and humid; rainy season (Jun - Nov) Type: Republic, multi-party since 1991. Independence: 24 September 1973 (proclaimed unilaterally); 10 September 1974 (de jure from Portugal). Natural resources: Fish and timber. Deposits of bauxite and phosphate are not exploited; offshore petroleum. Agriculture products: Cashews, tropical fruits, rice, peanuts, cotton, palm oil. Industries: Very little industrial capacity. Exports - commodities: bauxite, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products Imports - commodities: petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs


A virtual guide to Guinea, a developing country in the tropical southwestern part of West Africa at the Atlantic Ocean. Bordered in north by Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mali, and by Côte d'Ivoire to the east and southeast, by Liberia and Sierra Leone to the south. Until independence in 1958 the country was known as French Guinea, a French colony and part of French West Africa. The French language is a legacy of that time. French; Eight national languages, Soussou, Peulh, Maninka, Kissi 1.24 crores (2018) 245,860 sq. km. (95,000 sq. mi.) GN GIN UTAD - Université privé de Guinée Private university in Conakry. Université Kofi Annan de Guinée Private university for law, economics and management, since 2006 there is a faculty of medical and paramedical sciences. Université Gamal Abdel Nasser de Conakry: UGANC The University of Conakry is the largest university in Guinea. INHEA: Guinea Higher Education Profile Profile of higher education practice in Guinea by International Network for Higher Education in Africa. Climate: Tropical. Generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with a northeasterly Harmattan, a dry and dusty West African trade wind. Type: Military regime. Independence: 2 October 1958. Anniversary of the Second Republic, 3 April 1984. Natural resources: Bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, water power, uranium, fisheries. Agriculture products: Rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (tapioca), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber. Industries: Bauxite, gold, diamonds; alumina refining; light manufacturing and agricultural processing industries. Exports - commodities: bauxite, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products Imports - commodities: petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs


A virtual guide to the tropical country formerly known as British Guiana, until 1966 one of many British colonies, but the only possession Britain ever held on the mainland of South America. Guyana is situated in central north of the South American continent with a coastline at the North Atlantic Ocean. Countries with international borders to Guyana are Brazil, Suriname, and Venezuela, and it shares maritime borders with Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados. English, Guyanese Creole, Amerindian languages (primarily Carib and Arawak). 7.79 lakhs (2018) 215,000 sq. km. (83 000 sq. mi.) GY GUY Ministry of Education Guyana Official site of the ministry. Schools of Guyana Links to schools of Guyana. University of Guyana Walter Roth Museum of Anthropology Museum and anthropological research of ancient cultures of Guyana. Institute of Applied Science and Technology (IAST) Technology for the utilisation of Guyana's natural resources. Climate: Equatorial tropical. Type: Republic within the Commonwealth. Independence: 26 May 1966; Republic, 23 February 1970. Constitution: 1980 Natural resources: Bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish. Agriculture products: Sugar, rice, wheat, vegetable oils; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish, shrimp. Industries: Bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining. Exports - commodities: sugar, gold, bauxite, alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, rum, timber Imports - commodities: manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food


A virtual destination guide to Haiti, this page is about many aspects of the "mountainous land" how the Taino indians named the island. Search and locate official web sites from the island state, and find comprehensive information on the nation in its diversity: The Haitian culture, history and geography. Get key information on Haiti's economy, education, science, environment, population, and government. You will have access to news from Haiti and you may visit Haitian cities. Find maps and other information for adventure travel and tourism in Haiti. Haitian Creole, French 1.11 crores (2018) 27,750 km² (10,714 sq. mi.) HT Education and Research Haitian Scientific Society (HSS) Climate: Tropical, semiarid, high humidity in many coastal areas, mountains in east cut off trade winds. Type: Republic with an elected government. Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France). Constitution of the Republic of Haiti: March 1987. Natural resources: Bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble. Agricultural Products: coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, cacao, sorghum, pulses, other fruits and vegetables. Agriculture products: Coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum, wood. Industries: Sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, light assembly industries based on imported parts.


Destination Honduras, the Central American country occuping a mountainous portion of the land bridge between North and South America. Honduras is bordering the Caribbean Sea (Atlantic Ocean) in north and it has a short coastline on the Pacific Ocean (at the Gulf of Fonseca). Countries with international borders to Honduras are El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, it shares maritime borders with Belize, Colombia, Cuba, and Mexico. Spanish, Amerindian dialects. 8.5 million (2015) 112,492 km² (43,433 sq. mi. HN Universidad Catolica de Honduras Cathiolic education since 1992. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras Main university of Honduras founded in 1847. Universidad Jose Cecilio del Valle Founded in 1978. Climate: Tropical to subtropical, depending on elevation. Type: Democratic constitutional republic. Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain) Constitution: 1982. Natural resources: Timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower. Agriculture-products: Bananas, coffee, citrus; beef; timber; shrimp. Exports - commodities: coffee, apparel, coffee, shrimp, automobile wire harnesses, cigars, bananas, gold, palm oil, fruit, lobster, lumber Imports - commodities: communications equipment, machinery and transport, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs

Hong Kong

Destination Hong Kong, a Nations Online profile of the territory, also known as Xianggang, the "Fragrant Harbor." For more than 150 years, Hong Kong was a colony of the British Crown. In 1997 the British returned the city. Since then, it has been a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China, a type of provincial administrative unit. Hong Kong is located on the Pearl River Delta south of the Chinese province of Guangdong and the Chinese city of Shenzhen, surrounded by the South China Sea. Yue (Cantonese Chinese) and English are official 7.5 million (in 2019) 1,100 km².; Hong Kong comprises Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, the New Territories, and numerous small islands. Terrain: Hilly to mountainous, with steep slopes and natural harbor. HK, HKG Cyber Learning Centre Plus A learning portal for government employees, provided by the Civil Service Training and Development Institute (CSTDI). Chinese University of Hong Kong The public research university in Shatin is the only collegiate university in the territory; the institution has nine colleges and eight faculties. City University of Hong Kong Internationally recognized as a leading university in the Asia-Pacific region. Hong Kong Institute of Education A leading university-level institution, its mission: optimizing each child's potential through the shared joy of learning and teaching. Hong Kong Polytechnic University Formerly known as the Hong Kong Polytechnic, the Institution assumed full university status in 1994. Hong Kong Public Libraries Enrich knowledge and support lifelong learning. Climate: Tropical monsoon. Cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall. Type: since 1 July 1997, a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China, with its constitution (the Basic Law). Natural resources: Outstanding deepwater harbor. Agriculture products: Fresh vegetables, poultry, fish, pork. Industries: Textiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks. Exports - commodities: electrical machinery and appliances, textiles, apparel, footwear, watches and clocks, toys, plastics, precious stones, and printed material. Exports - partners: China, Thailand, India, and Vietnam Hong Kong plays an important role as a trading entrepôt to the Chinese mainland; Hong Kong’s reexports originated in mainland China, and were destined for the Chinese mainland. Imports - commodities: raw materials and semi-manufactures, consumer goods, capital goods, foodstuffs, fuel (most is reexported).


Destination Hungary, a landlocked country in Central Europe, that is bordered by Austria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine. With an area of 93,028 km², the country is about the size of Portugal, or about the same size as the U.S. state of Indiana. Hungary has a population of almost 10 million people (in 2015), official language is Hungarian. Magyar 97.7 lakhs (2019) 93,028 km² (35,918 sq. mi.) HU HUN Central European University Social sciences and humanities Semmelweis University of Medical Sciences Official website with information about its faculties. Technical University of Budapest The official website of the university. Science Hungarian Academy of Sciences Hungarian science. Konkoly Observatory Want to know something about variable stars Climate: Temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers. Type: Republic. Constitution: August 20, 1949. Substantially rewritten in 1989, amended in 1990. Agriculture products: Wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products. Industries: Mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles. Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment , other manufactures, food products, raw materials , fuels and electricity Exports - partners: Germany, Romania, Slovakia, Austria, Italy, France, UK, Czech Republic Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, other manufactures, fuels and electricity, food products, raw materials


Destination Iceland, an island nation in the North Atlantic Ocean, between Europe and North America. The country is situated on a strategic location between North America and Europe, about 840 km north west of the United Kingdom and about 460 km south east of Greenland's coast. The closest bodies of land in Europe are the Faroe Islands (530 km). The island lies just south of the Arctic Circle at the northern end of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), where the tectonic plate of Eurasia meets the North American Plate, causing a lot of volcanic activity in the region. Iceland's extraordinary landscape offers hot springs and geysers, icefields and volcanoes, glaciers and wild waterfalls. Icelandic 3.64 lakhs (2020) 103,000 km² (39,600 sq. mi.) IS ISL Háskóli Íslands The University of Iceland. Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers. Type: Semi-presidential, parliamentary. Independence: 1918 (became "sovereign state" under Danish Crown); 1944 (establishment of republic). Natural resources: Marine products, hydroelectric and geothermal power, diatomite. Agriculture products: Potatoes, green vegetables, mutton, dairy products, fish. Industries: Fish processing; aluminum smelting, ferrosilicon production, geothermal power; tourism. Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 40%, aluminum, animal products, ferrosilicon, diatomite (2010 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles


Destination India, a Nations Online country profile of the vast country in South-Central Asia that occupies the greater part of the Indian subcontinent. The country borders the Himalayas in the north, the Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east, and the Laccadive Sea in the south. India shares borders with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar (Burma), China (Xizang - Tibet Autonomous Region), Nepal, and Pakistan, and it shares maritime borders with Indonesia, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. India is the second-most populous country in the world (after China), with an estimated population of 1.36 billion people (in 2019). The country is subdivided into 29 states and seven Union Territories. Hindi, Marathi, English, and 20 other official languages. 1.36 billion (2019) 3.3 million km² (1.3 million sq. mi.) IN, IND Senate House of the University of Madras Universities and Science Institutes Aligarh Aligarh Muslim University Indian public university, formerly the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental (MAO) College (founded in 1875), AMU, a Central University since 1920, is located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. Bangalore Indian Institute of Science (IISc) The public institute for research and higher education in science and engineering is located in Bangalore, Karnataka. Chandigarh Panjab University Chandigarh, founded in 1882 at Lahore. Chennai (Madras) University of Madras "Learning Promotes Natural Talent"; the university is one of the oldest and prestigious universities in India, established in 1857, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM) One of the leading Indian Institutes of Technology Delhi University of Delhi. A premier university of the country, established in 1922. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi .IIT Delhi is one of the top-ranked universities in India. Hyderabad University of Hyderabad The University of Hyderabad is a public research university in Hyderabad, Telangana; it was established in 1974. Mumbai University of Mumbai The former University of Bombay is one of the oldest state universities in India, established in 1857. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay IIT Bombay is a leading college with its campus at Powai, in East Mumbai. Pune University of Pune Savitribai Phule Pune University was established in 1948. Research Centre for the Study of Developing Societies CSDS is an Indian research institute for the social sciences and humanities. Indian Space Research Organisation Official website of India's national space agency. Climate: Varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north. Federal Republic Independence: 15 August 1947 (from United Kingdom). Natural resources: Coal, iron, manganese, mica, bauxite, chromite, thorium, limestone, barite, titanium ore, diamonds, crude oil. Agriculture products: Rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry, and fish. Industries: Textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software. Exports - commodities: petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel. Imports - commodities: crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel.


Destination Indonesia, the largest archipelago in the world is situated in Maritime Southeast Asia, between the Indian Ocean (to the south) and the South China Sea (Pacific Ocean, in north). It is bordered by Malaysia (on Borneo), Papua New Guinea (on the island of New Guinea), Timor-Leste (East Timor) on the island of Timor. Indonesia shares maritime borders with Australia, India, Palau, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Bahasa Indonesia (official, akin to Malay), English, Dutch 26.77 crores (2018) 2 million km² (736 000 sq. mi.) ID Universitas Indonesia State university of Indonesia, Jakarta. Indonesia Universities A list of Indonesian Universities. Climate: tropical; hot, humid; cooler in the highlands. Type: Independent republic. Independence: 17 August 1945 Indonesia proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, the country became legally independent from the Netherlands. Constitution: 1945. Agriculture products: Rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs. Industries: Petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism. Exports - commodities: mineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts.


Destination Iran, a Nations Online Project country profile of the Islamic republic between the Caspian Sea in the north and the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south. Conventionally, it is the easternmost country in the Middle East. The land was formerly known as Persia. Iran is bordered by Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and Turkmenistan. Persian and Persian dialects, Turkic, Kurdish, Luri, Balochi, Arabic, Turkish 83 million (in 2020) 1.6 million km² (636,294 sq. mi.) IR, IRN Amirkabir University of Technology AUT is a leading public research university, formerly known as the Tehran Polytechnic; it was the first technical university in Iran. Shahid Beheshti University One of the most renowned and prestigious universities in Iran is located in Tehran. Sharif University of Technology SUT is a public research university in Tehran and considered to be the country's leading institution for engineering and physical science. Shiraz University Shiraz University is among the top three research universities in the country. University of Tehran Iran's second oldest modern university, and one of the most prestigious universities in the Middle East, is located in Tehran. Climate: Semiarid; subtropical along the Caspian coast. Type: Islamic republic. Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed) Constitution: Ratified December 1979, revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur. Agriculture products: Wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar. Industries: Petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabrication, armaments. Exports - commodities: petroleum 60%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets, cement, ore Imports - commodities: industrial supplies, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services


Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-1988). In August 1990 Iraq seized Kuwait, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during January-February 1991. The victors did not occupy Iraq, however, thus allowing the regime to stay in control. Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. UN trade sanctions remain in effect due to incomplete Iraqi compliance with relevant UNSC resolutions. Arabic (official) Kurdish, Assyrian, Armenia 3.84 crores (2018) 438,317 km²; IQ Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq. The Iraqi Interim Government (IIG) assumed sovereign authority for governing Iraq on 28 June 2004. Independence: 1932 (from British mandate) Constitution: Interim constitution, 8 March 2004: "The National Assembly shall write the draft of the permanent constitution by no later than 15 August 2005." Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur. Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep. Industries: Petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing.


Destination Ireland, an island in the British Isles located west of Great Britain. About four fifths of the area of Ireland are national territory of the Republic of Ireland, the remaining one fifth in the northeast of the island belongs to Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom (old story). With an area of 70,273 km², the Republic of Ireland is slightly larger than twice the size of Denmark, or slightly larger than the U.S. state of West Virginia. English, Irish (Gaelic) 49 lakhs (2019) 70,273 km² (27,136 sq. mi.) IE IRL The University of Dublin, Trinity College, founded in 1592, is the oldest university in Ireland. Dublin City University DCU is a young university, awarded university status in 1989. National University Of Ireland Ireland's largest university, established 1908. University College Cork University College Cork is made up of four Colleges: Arts, Celtic Studies and Social Sciences; Business and Law; Medicine and Health; Science, Engineering and Food Science. University College Dublin Ireland's largest University, founded in1851. University of Limerick The university is located near the city of Limerick, established in 1972. Climate: Temperate maritime, mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time. Type: Parliamentary republic. Independence: 6 Decembe 1921. Constitution: 29 December 1937. Natural resources: Natural gas, peat, copper, lead, zinc, silver, barite, gypsum, limestone, dolomite. Agriculture products: Turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; beef, dairy products. Industries: Food products, brewing, textiles, clothing; chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal; software. Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, computers, chemicals, medical devices, pharmaceuticals; foodstuffs, animal products Imports - commodities: data processing equipment, other machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, clothing


Destination Israel, a Nations Online Country Profile of the only Jewish country in the world. The Jewish state is located in a region regarded by Jews, Christians, and Muslims as the biblical Holy Land. The triangular-shaped country is part of the Middle East with a coast-line at the Mediterranean Sea, its southern tip connects it to the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Israel borders Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the Palestinian territories (West Bank and the Gaza Strip), it also shares maritime borders with Cyprus. Hebrew (official), Arabic (official), Russian, English 9.15 million (2020) 22,072 km² (8,494 sq. mi.) IL, ISR Ben Gurion University of the Negev in Beersheba. Image: David Saranga; Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs Israel Science and Technology Homepage National database and directory of science and technology-related sites in Israel. The site provides links to Israel education institutions. Al-Quds University Palestinian university with campuses in Jerusalem, Abu Dis, and al-Bireh. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Internationally recognized institution of higher learning, established in 1970. The university has five campuses, located in Beersheba, Sde Boker, and Eilat. Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII) The GII was founded in 1957; it serves the Oil and Gas, Mines and Minerals, Sub-Surface Engineering, and Homeland Security industries. Hebrew University of Jerusalem Well established research and teaching institution. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities acts as a national focal point for Israeli scholarships in both the natural sciences and the humanities. Climate: Temperate, except in desert areas. Type: Parliamentary democracy Independence: 14 May 1948. Constitution: no formal constitution Natural resources: Timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand. Agriculture products: Citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products. Industries: High-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, diamond cutting. Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel. Imports - commodities: raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, and consumer goods.


Destination Italy, a Nations Online country profile of "Bella Italia" - beautiful Italy, how many Italians love to call their country. Italy is located in southern Europe on the Apennine Peninsula. Its distinct shape, resembling a kicking boot, makes it easy to recognize it on maps or even from space. The Adriatic Sea borders the peninsula in the east, the Sea of Sicily in the south, the Ionian Sea in the southeast, the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the west, all those seas are parts of the Mediterranean Sea. Italian 60.4 million (2019) 301,318 km² (116,303 sq. mi.) IT, ITA Museo della Scienza e della Tecnica National Museum of Science and Technology "Leonardo da Vinci". Nuova Accademia di Bella Arti Fine art academy, Milan. Politecnico di Torino Public University in Turin. Università Bocconi The first school in Italy to grant a university degree in economics was founded in 1902 in Milan. Università di Bologna The University of Bologna is the oldest in the western world in continuous operation, founded in 1088. Università degli Studi di Firenze Italian public research university in Florence. Università degli Studi di Milano The University of Milan or UniMi is one of the largest universities in Europe. Università di Padua The University of Padua is the second-oldest university in Italy, founded in 1222. Università di Pavia Until the end of the 19th century, the University of Pavia was the only university in Milan and the Greater Lombardy Region, established in 1361. Università di Pisa The University of Pisa is a public research university founded in 1343. (in Italian) Sapienza Università di Roma Sapienza University in Rome is one of the oldest and most prestigious Italian universities, founded in 1303. Climate: Italy has a generally mild Mediterranean climate with cold winters in the north. Type: Republic since 2 June 1946. Constitution: 1 January 1948. Natural resources: Mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal, arable land. Agriculture products: Fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives, beef, dairy products, and fish. Industries: Tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics. Exports - commodities: engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals Imports - commodities: engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, tobacco


Destination Jamaica, the third largest island in the Caribbean Sea is situated west of Hispaniola and south of Cuba, about 870 km (540 mi) south east of Miami. Jamaica shares maritime borders with the Cayman Islands (UK), Colombia, Cuba, and Haiti. Nearby Caribbean island nations are Dominican Republic and Haiti on the island of Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. Jamaica's landscape is mostly mountainous, a limestone plateau covers two-thirds of the island, karst formations with caverns and caves dominate the island, it has narrow coastal plains, green dense rainforests and sandy bays and beaches. Highest point is Blue Mountain Peak (2,256 m) in the Blue Mountains National Park in the east of the island. English (official), most Jamaicans speak an English-based dialect which is known as patois 2.7 million (2015) 11,000 km² (4,247 sq. mi.) JM JAM National Library of Jamaica College of Agriculture (CASE) Northern Caribbean University Mandeville. University of the West Indies Mona Campus. Climate: Jamaica's climate is tropical marine. The mountainous terrain, the north-east trade winds and land-sea breezes modify the climate. Type: Constitutional parliamentary democracy. Independence: 6 August 1962 (from the UK). At Independence, Jamaica became a member of the Commonwealth, with Queen Elizabeth II as Head of State. The Queen is represented in Jamaica by the Governor-General. Natural resources: Bauxite, gypsum, limestone. Agriculture products: Sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, yams, vegetables, poultry, goats, milk, crustaceans, and mollusks. Industries: Tourism, bauxite/alumina, textiles, agro processing, wearing apparel, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products, telecommunications. Exports - commodities: alumina, bauxite, sugar, rum, coffee, yams, beverages, chemicals, apparel, mineral fuels


Destination Japan, a Nations Online Project country profile of the "Land of the Rising Sun," a nation that occupies a chain of islands in East Asia in the North Pacific Ocean roughly parallel with the eastern coast of Asia's mainland. The archipelago stretches from south of the Russian Sakhalin Island in the north to near Taiwan in the southwest. Japan's main islands are (from north to south) Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. The country shares maritime borders with China, North Korea, South Korea, the Philippines, Russia, and Taiwan. Japanese (Nihongo) 126 million (2020) 377 864 sq. km. (145 902 sq. mi.) JP Hokkaido University Hokudai in Sapporo is one of the top universities in Japan. Kyoto University Kyoto University has three campuses, Katsura, Uji, and Yoshida. It is one of Japan's oldest universities, founded in 1897. Kyushu University Kyudai in Fukuoka, on the island of Kyushu, is a leading university in the country. Nagoya University Meidai, a Japanese national university, is located in Chikusa-ku ward of the city of Nagoya. Osaka University Handai is a public research university and one of Japan's most prestigious institutions; it was founded as a merchant academy (Kaitokudo) in 1724. Tohoku University Tohokudai, located in Sendai, is a national university and among the most prestigious universities in Japan. University of Tokyo The former Tokyo Imperial University was the first Japanese institution of higher learning, founded in 1877. Climate: Varies from subtropical to temperate. Type: Constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government. Constitution: 3 May, 1947. Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu, held as official dogma until 1945.) Natural resources: the country has negligible mineral resources, fish. Agriculture products: rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit, pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs, fish. Industries: Japan is among the world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, and processed foods. Exports - commodities: motor vehicles, iron and steel products, semiconductors, auto parts, power generating machinery, plastic materials Exports - partners: USA, China, South Korea, Hong Kong, Thailand Imports - commodities: petroleum, liquid natural gas, clothing, semiconductors, coal, audio and visual apparatus


Destination Jordan, the Hashemite Kingdom in the Middle East, situated west of Israel and the Jordan river. It is a country at the crossroads of the continents of Asia, Africa and Europe. Countries with international borders to Jordan are Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and a portion of the Palestinian territories (West Bank), and it shares maritime borders with Egypt. The almost landlocked country is bordering the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) in a small outlet in south. The country has a lakeshore at the Dead Sea, Earth's lowest elevation on land at 430.5 m below sea level. Arabic (official), English 6.2 million (2012) 89,342 km² (34,495 sq. mi.) JO JOR Al-Ahliyya Amman University Privately funded and managed university, founded in 1990. Philadelphia University Located near Amman. University of Jordan The first ever institution of higher education in Jordan, founded in 1962. National Library Site of Jordan's National Library (in Arabic). Royal Institute for Interfaith Studies The mission of the Institute involves research, publication, and the organization of lectures, conferences, and workshops in the fields of Christian and Judaic studies with direct or indirect relevance to the Arab and Islamic worlds. Climate: Mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April) Type: Constitutional Monarchy. Independence: 25 May 1946. Constitution: 8 January 1952 Natural resources: Phosphates, potash, shale oil. Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons, olives; sheep, goats, poultry. Industries: Phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light manufacturing, tourism. Exports - commodities: textiles, fertilizers, potash, phosphates, vegetables, pharmaceuticals


Destination Kazakhstan, a republic in Central Asia, south of Russia, that extends east from the Caspian Sea to the Altai Mountains and China in west. Until 1991 Kazakhstan was one of the fifteen Soviet republics. Kazakhstan's small area west of the Ural river (in Kazakhstan known as Zhayyq) is geographically, even though not politically, located within Europe. Border countries are China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan Kazakh, Russian 1.83 crores (2018) 2.7 million km² (1.05 million sq. mi.) KZ Al-Farabi Kazakh State National University Homepage of the University (Russian) Kainar University Founded in 1991 (in Russian). Kazakh-American University First independent University in the Republic (Russian) The Kazakh National Agrarian University Established in April 1996. Kazakh National University of Arts Kazakhstan's higher education institution for the Arts. Climate: Continental, cold winters and hot summers; arid and semi-arid. Type: Republic; Kazakhstan has a hybrid system of Government that combines aspects of both parliamentary and presidential systems. Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union). Declaration of sovereignty: 25 October 1990. Natural resources: Major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium. Agriculture products: Grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; livestock. Industries: Oil, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials. Exports - commodities: oil and oil products, natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, grain, wool, meat, coal Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs


Destination Kenya, a country in East Africa bordering the Indian Ocean in south east, neighboring countries are Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. With an area of 580,000 km², the country is somewhat larger than Metropolitan France or slightly more than twice the size of the U.S. state Nevada. English, Swahili, more than 40 local ethnic languages. 5.14 crores (2018) 580,000 km² (225,000 sq mi.) KE Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) Established in 1981, it will be one of the five campuses of the new Pan African University (PAU), founded in 2011. Kenyatta University The University status was achieved in 1985. Moi University Higher Education since 1984, Eldoret. University of Nairobi (UoN) Established as University of East Africa in 1963. Today UoN runs seven campuses in the capital city. Climate: Varies from the tropical south, west, and central regions to arid and semi-arid in the north and the northeast. Type: Republic. Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK). Agriculture Products: Tea, coffee, sugarcane, horticultural products. Industries: Small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products processing; oil refining, cement; tourism. Exports - commodities: tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement. Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics.


The independent republic of Kiribati consists of a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean straddling the equator, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia. It includes three major island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, and Phoenix Islands. Formerly part of the British Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, the Ellice Islands became the independent nation of Tuvalu in 1978, the Gilbert Islands were granted self-rule by the UK in 1971 and complete independence in 1979 under the new name of Kiribati. English (official), Gilbertese/I-Kiribati 1.16 lakhs (2018) 726 km² (280 sq. mi.) in 32 atolls KI University of the South Pacific Premier institution of tertiary education in the Pacific region, jointly owned by the governments of twelve island countries, USP is an international centre of excellence for teaching, research and consulting on all aspects of Pacific life. University of the South Pacific Libraries The Main Library of the University of the South Pacific based at Laucala Campus, Suva, Fiji. Maritime equatorial to tropical, dry season from May through October, rainy season from November through April. Type: Republic - parliamentary democracy. Self rule granted by UK - 1971 Independence: 12 July 1979 (from United Kingdom). Constitution: 12 July 1979. US relinquished all claims to the sparsely inhabited Phoenix and Line Island groups in a 1979 treaty of friendship with Kiribati Natural resources: Phosphate (commercially viable phosphate deposits were exhausted at the time of independence in 1979). Agriculture - products: Copra, taro, pandanus, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; fish.

South Korea

Destination South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), a country in eastern Asia that occupies the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is located between the Sea of Japan (East Sea) in east, the Yellow Sea in west, and the Korea Strait, a sea passage between South Korea and Japan in the south. South Korea has a land border with North Korea in north. The country also shares maritime borders with China and Japan. With an area of 99,678 km² the country is about the size of Iceland, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. Korean, Spoken 50.8 million (2016) 99,678 km² (38 375 sq. mi.) KR KOR Korea University Private university in the South Korean capital Seoul. The institution was founded in 1905, partly by imperial funds, as the first modern college of the country with the name Boseong College. Flagship Korean National Universities Seoul National University (SNU) Pusan University (PNU) Kangwon National University (KNU) Kyungpook National University (KNU) Chonbuk National University (CBNU) Chungbuk National University (CBNU) Chungnam National University (CNU) Gyeongsang National University (GNU) The National Library of Korea Climate: Temperate, four distinct seasons, and heavier rainfall in the summer. Type: Republic with powers shared between the president and the legislature. Liberation: 15 August 1945 from Japanese rule. Natural resources: Limited coal, tungsten, iron ore, limestone, kaolinite, and graphite. Agriculture products: Rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs; fish. Industries: Electronics, telecommunications, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel. Exports - commodities: semiconductors, petrochemicals, automobile/auto parts, ships, wireless communication equipment, flat display displays, steel, electronics, plastics, computers


Destination Kuwait, a Nations Online Country Profile. The oil-rich, family-run emirate in the Middle East is situated on the Arabian Peninsula, bordering the northwestern part of the Persian Gulf (Arabian Gulf). Kuwait borders Iraq and Saudi Arabia, and it shares maritime boundaries with Iran. Several islands belong to Kuwait, the largest are Bubiyan, Warbah, and Failaka islands, situated off the coast of the mainland. Arabic (official); English widely spoken 4.8 million 17,818 km² (about 6.880 sq. mi.) KW, KWT The Public Authority for Applied Education & Training (PAAET) Academic institute in Kuwait. (in Arabic) American University of Kuwait A private liberal arts institution Gulf University for Science & Technology GUST is the first private university established in Kuwait. Kuwait University Kuwait higher education since1966. The public university with six campuses offers programs in sciences, engineering, humanities, medical, and social sciences. Climate: Intensely hot and dry in summers; short, cool winters with limited rain. Type: Constitutional Hereditary Amirate (Constitutional monarchy) Independence: 19 June 1961. Constitution: approved and promulgated 11 November 1962. Natural resources: Petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas. Agriculture products: Some farming in Wafra and Abdali; fish. Industries: Petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing, construction materials. Exports - commodities: Oil and petroleum products, fertilizers. Imports - commodities: Food, construction materials, vehicles and parts, clothing.


A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan was annexed by Russia in 1864; it achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Current concerns include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, inter-ethnic relations, and terrorism. (Source: CIA - The World Factbook) Kyrgyz (official); Russian is de facto second language 63.2 lakhs (2018) 200,000 km² (77,220 sq. mi.) KG Bishkek Humanities University Information on the University by IATP International University of Kyrgyzstan Homepage of the University (Russian) Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University Established in 1992 Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University Founded by Kyrgyzstan and Turkey in 1995 The National Library of the Kyrgyz Republic A description of the IATP Climate: Dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone. Type: Republic; Bicameral parliament with 60 deputies in upper (legislative) chamber, 45 in lower (representative) chamber. Natural resources: Abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc. Agriculture products: Tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool. Industries: Small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals.


Destination Laos, a landlocked country in Southeast Asia on the Indochinese peninsula between Thailand and Vietnam, and north of Cambodia. Laos shares also short borders with China and Myanmar (Burma). Laos was part of French Indochina, it became independent in 1953, but for most of the next 25 years it was torn by civil strife between the communist Pathet Lao movement and government supporters. In 1975, the Pathet Lao achieved total control, and a communist republic was established, the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Lao (official), French, various highland ethnic, English. 70.6 lakhs (2018) 236,800 km² (91,430 sq. mi.) LA LAO Lao-Singapore Business College LSBC offers English courses as well as a full time High Diploma and Computer classes, Vientiane. National University of Laos Laos Higher Education Institution, established in 1995. Climate: Tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (November to April). Type: Communist state. Independence: 19 July 1949 (from France). Natural resources: unspoilt tropical forest, timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones. Agriculture products: Rice, sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, tea, peanuts, water buffalo, pigs, cattle, poultry. Industries: Tin and gypsum mining, timber, electric power, agricultural processing, construction, garments, tourism. Exports - commodities: wood products, coffee, electricity, tin, copper, gold, cassava


Destination Latvia, one of the three Baltic states, situated on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, between Estonia and Lithuania. The country is also bordered by Russia and Belarus, and it shares maritime borders with Sweden. With an area of 64,589 km², Latvia is about half the size of Greece, or slightly larger than the US state of West Virginia. Its mostly flat landscape offers a mix of beaches, rivers, lakes, marshes and forests. There are four major regions: West Latvia (Kurzeme), East Latvia (Latgale), North Latvia (Vidzeme), and South Latvia (Zemgale). Latvian. Russian also is spoken 19.2 lakhs (2019) 64,589 km² (24,937 sq. mi.) LV LVA Academic Information Centre Information about higher education in Latvia. Institute of Astronomy University of Latvia Information about astronomical activities in Latvia. Latvian Academy of Sciences Official science academy of Latvia. Latvijas Universitate University of Latvia, founded in 1919 on the basis of the former Riga Polytechnic (founded in 1862) Riga Technical University Official site of RTU. Climate: Temperate, maritime; wet, with four seasons of almost equal length. January temperatures average Type: Parliamentary Democracy. Constitution: The law "On the Republic of Latvia Status as a State," Natural resources: Peat, limestone, dolomite, amber, hydropower, wood, arable land. Agriculture products:Grain, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish. Industries: Automotive industry, railroad cars, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, electronics, synthetic fibers, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles. Exports - commodities: foodstuffs, wood and wood products, metals, machinery and equipment, textiles.


Lebanon is a mountainous country in the Levant with a coastline on the eastern Mediterranean Sea; it borders Israel in the south and Syria in the north. The Anti-Lebanon mountain range forms long stretches of the border between Lebanon and Syria in the east. The country also shares maritime borders with Cyprus. The smallest nation on the Asian mainland covers an area of 10,400 km², compared it is about one-third the size of Belgium or about one-third the size of the US state of Maryland. Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian 6.8 million (2019) 10,452 km² (4,015 sq. mi.) LB, LBN American University of Beirut (AUB) Major university founded in 1866. Beirut Arab University (BAU) A private institution for higher education founded in 1960. Haigazian University Established in 1955 as a liberal arts institution of higher learning. Lebanese University (LU) Established in 1951, the Lebanese University has 16 faculties; it is the only public institution for higher learning in Lebanon. Lebanese American University An American institution chartered by the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York. MUC The Matn University College of Technology (MUC) has campuses in Beirut and in Khalda. Climate: Mediterranean. Type: Parliamentary Republic. Independence: 22 November 1943. Natural resources: Limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land. Agriculture products: Citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats. Industries: Banking, food processing, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating. Exports - commodities: jewelry, base metals, chemicals, consumer goods, fruit and vegetables, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper Imports - commodities: petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals


Lesotho is a democratic, sovereign and independent country with the unique characteristic of being totally surrounded by its neighbour, the Republic of South Africa. The country formerly known as Basutoland was renamed to the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966. In 1993 after 23 years of military rule, a new constitution was implemented leaving the King without any executive authority and proscribing him from engaging in political affairs. Official--Sesotho and English. Others--Zulu, Xhosa. 2.2 million (2010) 30,355 sq. km. (11 718 sq. mi.). LS Institute of Southern African Studies The Institute of Southern African Studies is located at the University of Lesotho. National University of Lesotho Official website, provides information about the National University and its faculties. Climate: Temperate; summers hot, winters cool to cold; humidity generally low and evenings cool year round. Rainy season in summer, winters dry. Southern hemisphere seasons are reversed. Type: Modified constitutional monarchy. Independence: 4 October 1966. (from 1868 until independence Lesotho was placed under British protection.) Natural resources: Water, agricultural and grazing land, some diamonds and other minerals. Lesotho is an exporter of excess labor. Agriculture products: Corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley; livestock. Industries: Food, beverages, textiles, apparel assembly, handicrafts; construction; tourism.


Destination Liberia, the "Land of the Free" a tropical country in West Africa with a spectacular coastline at the North Atlantic Ocean. The country was known for some time as the Pepper Coast and later as the Grain Coast. It is surrounded by Sierra Leone, Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire. Liberia covers an area of 111,369 km² (43,000 sq mi), making it somewhat larger than Bulgaria or slightly larger than the U.S. state of Tennessee. English (official). There are 16 indigenous languages 48.2 lakhs (2018) 111,369 km² (43,000 sq. mi.) LR LBR Cuttington University College Official website of the college with its history, its current situation, and future, news and announcements are included. University of Liberia The new website of the university. Type: Republic. Independence: 26 July 1847 (from American Colonization Society). Constitution: 6 January 1986. Climate: tropical; hot, humid; in winter: dry with hot days and cool to cold nights; dust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to March) in summer: wet, cloudy with frequent heavy showers. Natural resources: Deposits of iron ore, rubber, timber, diamonds, gold and tin, hydropower; crude oil along Atlantic Coast. Agriculture products: Coffee, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, cassava, palm oil, bananas, plantains, citrus, pineapple, sweet potatoes, corn, and vegetables. Industries: Iron ore, rubber, palm oil processing, timber, diamonds, gold, beverages, construction. Exports - commodities: rubber, timber, iron, diamonds, cocoa, coffee Imports - commodities: fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods; foodstuffs


A virtual guide to Libya, a country in North Africa's Maghreb region. About 90% of the country is covered by the Libyan desert (part of he Sahara) where agriculture and therfore live is possible only in a few scattered oases. The fourth largest country in Africa is about the size of Spain, Portugal, France, Germany and the UK combined. Libya's main population centers are spread along the more fertile strip at the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Arabic is the primary language. English, French, and Italian 66.8 lakhs (2018) 1,759,540 km² (679,362 sq. mi., LY Al-Fateh University Site of the Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli Garyounis University Founded in Benghazi in 1955 under the name of the Libyan University The Green Book Studies Center Multi Language Homepage related to Libya and Mu`ammar al-Qadhafi's revolutionary Green Book Science National Center for Research and Scientific Studies Libyan Scientific Organization established in 1995, Tripoli Climate: Mediterranean along the coast; dry and extreme hot in desert interior. Provisional government. The National Transitional Council of Libya was formed by anti-Gaddafi forces to represent Libya in the 2011 Libyan uprising. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, gypsum. Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle. Industries: Petroleum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement.


Destinaton Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein, a small landlocked country in the Upper Rhine Valley between Austria in east and Switzerland in west. From north to south, the country is about 24 km (15 mi) long, an area of 160 km² (61.8 sq mi) making the country the sixth-smallest independent nation in the world. German (official), Alemannic dialect. 38,749 (2020) 160 km² (61.7 sq. mi.) LI - LIE EDU.LI Education and Research Network. International Academy of Philosophy Bi-lingual academic institute that offers graduate degrees in philosophy, founded in 1986. Universität Liechtenstein Formerly the Liechtenstein college, now the university of Liechtenstein for architecture and business economics, it is the largest of four centers for higher education in the principality. Climate: Continental with four seasons, cold winters with snow or rain; cool to moderately warm summers. Type: Constitutional, hereditary monarchy on a democratic and parliamentary basis. Independence: the Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein was established on 23 January 1719 ; on 12 July 1806 it established independence from the Holy Roman Empire. Constitution: 5 October 1921. Natural resources: Hydroelectric potential, arable land. Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products. Industries: Electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments. Exports - commodities: small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products Imports - commodities: agricultural products, raw materials, energy products, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles


Destination Lithuania, an Eastern European country with a coastline at the Baltic Sea in west. It is the largest and most populous of the three Baltic states. The country is bordered by Belarus, Latvia, Poland, and Russia (Kaliningrad) and it shares a maritime border with Sweden. Lithuania covers an area of 65.300 km², making it slightly smaller than half the size of Greece, or slightly larger than West Virginia. Its smooth, flat landscape offers sandy beaches, numerous lakes, wetlands, and mixed forest areas. Lithuanian; a minority speaks Russian and Polish 27.9 lakhs (2020) 65,300 km² (25,212 sq. mi.). lt, LTU Vilnius University One of the oldest and most famous establishments of higher education in Eastern and Central Europe, founded in 1579. Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Official website of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Kaunas University of Technology Public research university in Kaunas. Vytautas Magnus University One of the leading universities of Lithuania, a center for academic work in humanities, social sciences, theology and liberal arts. Klaipeda University The university offers a wide variety of study programmes in different study fields. Higher Education and Science of Lithuania Address list of Lithuanian Institutions of Higher Education and Science. Climate: Humid continental with four distinct seasons, and a moderating maritime influence from the Baltic Sea. Type: Parliamentary Republic. Independence: 11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania's independence) Constitution: Adopted 25 October 1992. Industries: Metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry. Exports - commodities: refined fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, plastics Imports - commodities: oil, natural gas, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals


The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in Western Europe. The country shares international borders with Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Luxembourg's geography offers two principal regions: the Oesling, a part of the Ardennes massif, a hilly region with large mixed forests in the north, and the Gutland ("good country"), the relatively urbanized region in the south. Luxembourgish, French, and German 6.14 lakhs (2019) 2,586 sq. km. (999 sq. mi.) LU, LUX Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg University of Luxembourg (French) Sacred Heart University Luxembourg RESTENA (Réseau Téléinformatique de l'Education Nationale et de la Recherche) The National Network for Education and Research. Climate: Continental, mild summers and moderate snowfall in winter. Constitutional monarchy. Independence: 1839. Constitution: 1868. Natural resources: Iron ore, (no longer exploited), timber. Agriculture products: Dairy, wine,potatoes, wheat, fruits, forestry, animal feed crops. Industries: Banking and financial services, steel, chemicals. Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass Imports - commodities: commercial aircraft, minerals, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, luxury consumer goods


Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs. Chinese (Cantonese) 6.32 lakhs (2018) 28.2 km² total, with 8.9 km² MO Macau Polytechnic Institute Official homepage of Macao Polytechnic Institute. University of Macau Public institution of higher learning, founded in 1992. Climate: Subtropical; hot and rainy from spring through summer, cool and humid in winter. Type: Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China since 20 December 1999. Macau has its own mini-constitution (the Basic Law). Natural resources: none Agriculture products: vegetables; fishing. Industries: Tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys.


Destination Oman, a sultanate in the Middle East on the southeastern edge of the Arabian Peninsula, bordering the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman, and the Persian Gulf. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen, and it shares maritime borders with Iran and Pakistan. The oldest independent state in the Arab world was a sultanate known as Muscat and Oman until 1970, the country was the most influential power in the region during the 19th century, it controlled Zanzibar and other territories. Since the late 19th century, it has had strong links with Britain. Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Swahili, Hindi and Indian 48.3 lakhs (2018) 309,500 km² (119,498 sq. mi.) OM OMN Dhofar University Official website of Dhofar University. Nizwa University Official website of University Of Nizwa. Sohar University Information about the first private university in the Sultanate of Oman. Sultan Qaboos University - SQU The first university in Oman, Muscat. Oman Studies Centre Documentation and Research on Oman and the Arabian Gulf. Climate: Hot, humid along the coast; hot, dry in the interior; summer monsoon in far south. Type: Monarchy Independence: 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese) Constitution: On 6 November 1996, Sultan Qaboos issued a royal decree promulgating the Basic Law which, clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral legislature, and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens. Political parties: None Natural resources: Petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas. Agriculture products: Dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish. Industries: Crude oil production and refining, natural gas production, construction, cement, copper. Exports - commodities: petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants


Destination Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, an independent emirate (an Arabic Islamic monarchy) in the Gulf Region. The country is situated on a peninsula that extends from the Arabian Peninsula approximately 160 km (99 mi) north into the Persian (Arab) Gulf, it is bordered by Saudi Arabia. Qatar shares maritime borders with Bahrain, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates. Arabic (official); English (widely spoken) 27.8 lakhs (2018) 11,586 km² (4,473 sq. mi.) QA QAT Ministry of Education and Higher Education Official website of the ministry, the highest official authority on all educational affairs in the State of Qatar. Doha College The international British school in Doha, the not-for-profit organization is sponsored by the British Embassy. University of Qatar Official web site of the University of Qatar, the only government university in the country was founded in 1977. Climate: Hot and dry, some humidity in summer Type: Constitutional Emirate. Independence: 3 September 1971 Constitution: 1970 Basic Law, revised 1972; currently under complete review. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, fish. Agriculture products: Fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish. Industries: Crude oil production and refining, petrochemicals, fertilizers. Exports - commodities: liquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steel Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals


A virtual guide to Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, a landlocked country in central south Africa, separated from Zimbabwe by the Zambezi River. Zambia is also bordered by Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, and Tanzania. With an area of 752,618 km², the country is slightly larger than twice the size of Germany or slightly larger than Texas. English (official), dialects, including Bemba, Lozi, Kaonde, Lunda, Luvale, Tonga, and Nyanja. 1.74 crores (2018) 752,618 sq. km. (290,585 sq. mi.) ZM ZMB The University of Zambia Official website of the university located in Lusaka. Type: Republic. Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK). Constitution: 1991 (amended in 1996 to establish presidential term limits). Climate: Generally dry and temperate, tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (Oct. to April). Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower. Agriculture products: Corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides Industries: Copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture. Exports - commodities: copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton


A virtual guide to Zimbabwe, a landlocked country in South East Africa, separated from Zambia by the Zambezi River. The Limpopo River in south forms part of the border with South Africa, it is bordered in east by Mozambique, and in west by Botswana. The Namibia-Zambia-Botswana tripoint at the town of Kazungula (Zambia) lies about 100 meters from the Zimbabwe border and as such Namibia almost borders Zimbabwe. English (official); Chishona, Sindebele 1.44 crores (2018) 390,757 sq. km. (150,872 sq. mi.) ZW ZWE Africa University A private, Pan-African and United Methodist-Related institution close to Mutare. University of Zimbabwe Harare, the nation's largest university, founded in 1955. Climate: Subtropical and tropical, moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March). Type: Parliamentary. Constitution: 21 December 1979. Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK) Natural resources: Coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals Agriculture products: Corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs. Industries: Mining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages. Exports - commodities: platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products


Yemen is a desert country in the Middle East on the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, bordered in west by the Red Sea and the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait, in north by Saudi Arabia and in north east by Oman. Yemen has maritime borders with Djibouti, Eritrea, and Somalia. With an area of 527,970 sq km (including the islands of Perim and Socotra), the country is about the size of Sweden or about twice the size of Wyoming. Arabic 2.85 crores (2018) 527,970 km² (203,796 sq. mi.) YE Al Ahgaff University Official website of the university (in Arabic). National University National University at Ta'izz (in Arabic). Queen ARWA University Sana'a, founded in 1996. Sanaa Institute for Arabic Language SIAL offers an Arabic language program in Standard Arabic and Yemeni Colloquial dialect, as well as courses in Yemeni culture. Sana'a University Official site of the university (in Arabic) University of Aden The University of Aden was established in 1975. Climate: Temperate in the mountainous regions in the western part of the country, extremely hot with minimal rainfall in the remainder of the country. Humid on the coast. Presidential Republic Unification of former south and north Yemen: 22 May 1990. Independency: 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) 1967 (South Yemen from the UK). Constitution: Adopted 21 May 1990 and ratified in May 1991. Natural resources: Oil, natural gas, fish and seafood, rock salt, minor deposits of coal and copper. Agriculture products: Coffee, cotton, fruits, vegetables, cereals, livestock and poultry; Qat (a shrub containing a natural amphetamine). Industries: Crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement; commercial ship repair. Exports - commodities: crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas. Imports - commodities: food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals


Destination Vanuatu, this page is about the Melanesian archipelago that comprises about 80 islands, formerly known as the New Hebrides. The Republic of Vanuatu is an island nation in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Caledonia, east of Australia and west of Fiji. The Y-shaped chain of fourteen main islands between the South Pacific Ocean and the Coral Sea is of volcanic origin and home to several active volcanoes. The colliding Pacific and Indo-Australian continental plates provide for geological activities like earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones, and volcanic eruptions, hardly tourist attractions. But Mount Yasur on Tanna Island is an easily accessible active volcano, and a major Vanuatu tourist attraction, especially at night. English, French and Bislama (pidgin English), 2.93 lakhs (2018) 14,760 km² (5,697 sq miles). VU VUT University of the South Pacific Premier institution of tertiary education in the Pacific region, jointly owned by the governments of twelve island countries, USP is an international centre of excellence for teaching, research and consulting on all aspects of Pacific life. University of the South Pacific Libraries The Main Library of the University of the South Pacific based at Laucala Campus, Suva, Fiji. Climate: Maritime tropical; moderate rainfall from November to April. Type: Parliamentary democracy. Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK) . Constitution: 30 July 1980 Natural resources: Manganese, hardwood forests, fish. Agriculture products: Copra, coconuts, cocoa, coffee, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, vegetables; fish, beef. Exports - commodities: copra, beef, cocoa, timber, kava, coffee Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, fuels


A virtual guide to Venezuela, officially, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a country in northern South America that borders the Caribbean Sea in north and the North Atlantic Ocean in east. Neighboring countries are Colombia in west and south west, Brazil in south and Guyana in east. The country shares also overlapping maritime borders with Barbados, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Puerto Rico. Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects 2.89 crores (2018) 912,050 km² (352,143 sq. mi.) VE VEN Universidad Central de Venezuela Highest ranking public university of Venezuela, located in Caracas (in Spanish). Universidad de Los Andes As a study center founded in 1785, 1810 transformed into a university, the second-oldest university in Venezuela has its main campus in the city of Mérida. Universidad Nueva Esparta Private university in Caracas, founded in 1954. Universidad Simón Bolívar Scientific and technological public university, founded in 1968 (Spanish). Climate: Varies from tropical to temperate, depending on elevation. Type: Federal Republic. Independence: 5 July 1811. Constitution: 30 December 1999. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds. Agriculture products: Corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish. Industries: Petroleum, iron ore mining, construction materials, food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly. Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, bauxite and aluminum, minerals, chemicals, agricultural products Imports - commodities: agricultural products, livestock, raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials, medical equipment, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, iron and steel products


Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is a long streched country along the eastern coast of the Indochinese Peninsula. Vietnam borders China in north, Laos and Cambodia in west. The nation is bordering the South China Sea in east, and the Gulf of Tonkin with the island of Hainan Dao (China) in north-east. The country shares maritime borders with Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand. Vietnamese (official), English, Chinese, and Khmer 9.55 crores (2018) 332,000 km² (127 243 sq. mi.) VN VNM Hanoi University of Technology (HUT) Official site of the University. National University of Ho Chi Minh City The Vietnam National University comprises several universities and faculties in Ho Chi Minh City, founded in 1995. University of Technology Hochiminh City Official site of HUTECH with all the university information. Climate: Tropical monsoon Type: Communist Party-dominated constitutional republic. Independence: 2 September 1945. New constitution: 15 April 1992. Natural resources: Phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower. Agriculture products: Paddy rice, coffee, fish and seafood, rubber, cotton, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas, poultry. Industries: Food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, coal, steel, paper. Exports - commodities: clothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles


A virtual guide to Uganda, a landlocked country across the equator in Eastern Africa bordering Lake Victoria in south east. It is bodered by South Sudan in north, Democratic Republic of the Congo in west, Kenya in east, and by Rwanda and Tanzania in south. The country occupies an area of 241,551 km², compared Uganda is slightly smaller than the UK or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Oregon. English (official); Luganda, Swahiliother Bantu and Nilotic 4.27 crores (2018) 241,500 km² (93,000 sq. mi.) UG Makerere University Commonly referred to as the Ivory Tower, Ugandas' premier institution of learning, Kampala. Uganda Martyrs University A Catholic university at Nkozi. Climate: In the northeast, semi-arid--rainfall less than 50 cm. (20 in.); in southwest, rainfall 130 cm. (50 in.) or more. Two dry seasons: Dec.-Feb. and June-July. Type: No-party "Movement" system. Constitution: The new Constitution was ratified on 12 July 1995, and promulgated on 8 October 1995. The Constitution Of The Republic Of Uganda Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, limestone. Agriculture products: Coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, cut flowers. Industries: Sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement. Exports - commodities: coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold Imports - commodities: capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals


Destination Ukraine, a Nations Online Project profile of the country in Eastern Europe. The largest country entirely within Europe has a coastline at the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in the southeast. Ukraine borders Russia in the northeast and east, Belarus in the northwest, Poland, and Slovakia in the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest. The country covers an area of 600,000 km²; it is about twice the size of Italy or slightly smaller than the US state of Texas. Ukrainian (official), Russian 4.2 crores (2019) 603,000 km² (233,100 sq mi) UA, UKR Ivan Franko National University of L'viv Oldest continuously operating university in Ukraine, founded in 1661. Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute The Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, KPI, is a leading university in the country. Kharkiv National University A major university in the city of Kharkiv, Ukraine. Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv KNU is an institution of higher education in the capital of Ukraine Kiev. Sumy State University Sumy State University (SSU) is situated in Sumy city in North-East of Ukraine and is a leading higher education establishment of the region. University of Chernivtsi The public university in the City of Chernivtsi in western Ukraine is one of the leading Ukrainian institutions for higher education; it was founded in 1875. Uzhgorod National University Uzhhorod university was founded on 18 October 1945. Climate: two climatic zones: moderate and subtropical at the southern shore of Crimea. Type: Presidential-parliamentary. Independence: August 24, 1991. Constitution: First post-Soviet constitution adopted June 28, 1996. Agriculture products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, beef, and milk. Natural resources: oil, natural gas, manganese, coal, iron ore, mercury, nickel, kaolin, magnesium, titanium, graphite, sulfur, and salt. Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, and food processing. Exports - commodities: ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, and transport equipment, foodstuffs. Imports - commodities: energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals.

United Arab Emirates

Destination United Arab Emirates, a country on the Arabian Peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The United Arab Emirates, sometimes simply called the Emirates or UAE, is a federation of seven emirates (states). The country's landscape consists mostly of gravel plains and sand dunes desert, its main cities and urban centers are located mainly along its coasts. Border countries are Oman and Saudi Arabia, the UAE shares maritime borders with Iran and Qatar. Arabic (official), English, Hindi, Urdu, Farsi 96.3 lakhs (2018) 83,600 sq. km (32,400 sq. miles) AE ARE Ajman University of Science & Technology Network (AUST Network) Established to be a distinguished institution of higher education in the UAE and the Arab world. United Arab Emirates University Arab Islamic University. University of Sharjah The University aims to become a leading academic institution in the Middle East. Zayed University Zayed's University for women. Climate: Hot, humid, low annual rainfall, cooler in eastern mountains In 1971 the former Trucial States of the Persian Gulf coast Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi), 'Ajman (Ajman), Al Fujayrah (Fujairah), Ash Shariqah (Sharjah), Dubayy (Dubai), and Umm al Qaywayn (Umm al-Qaiwain) - merged to form the United Arab Emirates joined by Ra's al Khaymah (Ras al-Khaimah) in 1972. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas. Agriculture products: Dates, vegetables, watermelons; poultry, eggs, dairy products; fish. Industries: Petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling. Exports - commodities: Crude oil 45%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates Imports - commodities: pearls, precious metals and stones, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food

United Kingdom

Destination Great Britain, a Nations Online Project country profile. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is known as the United Kingdom, the UK, Britain, or even England. The country on the island of Great Britain in north-western Europe comprises England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, which occupies the northeastern part of the island of Ireland. On the island of Ireland, there is the country's only land border, the one with the Republic of Ireland. English, Welsh, Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic 6.66 crores (2019) 243,000 km² (93,000 sq. mi.) GB, GBR The British Library One of the world's great knowledge institutions. Eton College The Eton College Web Page, an independent boarding school for boys in Eton, Windsor, Berkshire. London School of Economics and Political Science Founded in 1895, teaching and research across the full range of the social, political and economic sciences. Oxford Brookes University Named Best New University 2001-2005 by the Sunday Times University Guide. University of Cambridge Welcome to the University of Cambridge, the collegiate public research university in Cambridge. King's College London KCL is the oldest college of the University of London and one of the most prestigious university institutions in Europe. University College London Founded in 1826, UCL is consistently ranked in the top three multifaculty UK universities. University of Nottingham The University of Nottingham is a research university in the middle-English city of Nottingham. University of Oxford Home page of the University of Oxford in Oxford (England) is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in the world. University of Sussex Founded in the 1960s, the University has become a leading teaching and research institution in the UK. Climate:Very British: more than one-half of the days are overcast; generally mild and temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current. Constitutional monarchy. Constitution: Unwritten, partly statutes, partly common law and practice. Natural resources: Coal, oil, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica. Agriculture products: Cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, sheep, poultry, fish, milk, eggs. Industries: Machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods. Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, and tobacco. Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs


Destination Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, a country on the South Atlantic Ocean coast of southern South America, south of Brazil, it borders Argentina in west. With an area of 176,000 km², the country is the second-smallest nation (after Suriname) in South America, but still almost twice the size of Portugal or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Washington. Spanish 34.5 lakhs (2018) 176,000 km² (68,000 sq. mi.) UY UGY Universidad Católica del Uruguay The Catholic University of Uruguay is a private university in Montevideo. Universidad ORT Uruguay's largest private university. Universidad de la República Uruguay The University of the Republic of Uruguay is a public university and the most important, oldest, and largest university in the country, founded in 1836 Type: Constitutional Republic. Independence: 25 August 1825 (from Brazil) Constitution: First 1830, current 1967, most recently amended December 1996. Natural resources: Arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fisheries. Agriculture products: Rice, wheat, corn, barley; livestock; fish. Industries: Food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages. Exports - commodities: beef, soybeans, cellulose, rice, wheat, wood, dairy products; wool Imports - commodities: refined oil, crude oil, passenger and other transportation vehicles, vehicle parts, cellular phones.


A virtual guide to Uzbekistan, a landlocked country in Central Asia south and southeast of the Aral Sea, bordered by Kazakhstan in west and north east, by Turkmenistan in south west, it has a short border with Afghanistan in south (145 km), Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan in east. The country occupies an area of 447,400 km², Uzbekistan is about the size of Sweden, or slightly larger than the U.S. state of California. The landscape of Uzbekistan is dry with mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert, inclusive sand dunes. Only about 10% of the country's area is intensively cultivated with irrigated land in river valleys and oases. Uzbek (Turkic tongue), Russian,, Tajik 3.3 crores (2018) 447 400 sq. km., (172 742 sq. mi.) UZ UZB Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan Ferghana State University Educational institution of Ferghana region. National University of Uzbekistan Official web site of the university (in Uzbek) Samarkand State University Official web site of Samarkand State University. Tashkent Islamic University Founded in 1999. University of World Economy and Diplomacy Educational institution of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs . List of Uzbek Universities Address list of Uzbek Universities. Climate: Desert-continental; long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east. Type: Republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch. Independence: 1 September 1991 (from the USSR). Constitution: 8 December 1992. Natural resources: Gold, uranium, copper, natural gas, tungsten, potassium salts, phosphorus and kaolin. Agriculture products: Cotton, fourth-largest producer worldwide; vegetables, fruits, grain, livestock. Industries: Textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas. Exports - commodities: energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles. Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals.

United States

Destination USA, a Nations Online Project country profile of the United States of America, a nation of 50 states, covering the central part of North America. The Continental United States is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Pacific Ocean in the west. Alaska, the largest US state, occupies a huge peninsula in the extreme northwest of North America. The US state of Hawaii is an island group located in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States. The USA borders Canada in the north; its southern 3,155 km long border to Mexico is partly furnished with a great wall (or fence). The United States also shares maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, and Russia. English, Spanish, other Indo-European, Asian and Pacific island 32.82 crores (2019) 9,630 million km² US, USA California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. Massachusetts Institute of Technology - MIT Cambridge, Massachusetts Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) Has proven itself to be one of the premier sources of vision and innovation for technology-driven industries. The National Science Foundation - NSF To promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense., established 1950. Smithsonian Institution The increase and diffusion of knowledge. Founded in 1846. Smithsonian Magazine Explore Art, Science, and History. NASA NASA The Space Agency. Astrobiology at NASA Astrobiology at NASA research, e.g., the search for habitable planets, exploration missions to Mars, etc. Important Schools, Colleges and Universities Glen Mills Schools Sam Ferrainola's obviously working concept of reintegration of court adjudicated youth. Duke University Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Climate: Mostly temperate, tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska. Type: Constitution-based federal republic Independence: 4 July 1776 (from Great Britain) Declaration of Independence Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789. Natural resources: Coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber. Agriculture products: Wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; forest products; fish. Industries: Leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining. Imports - commodities: agricultural products, industrial supplies, capital goods (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods(automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys)


A virtual guide to Vatican City, a landlocked sovereign city-state located within the city of Rome in Italy. The State of Vatican City is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church. It is the world's smallest independent 'country' with a population of about 800 people and an area of 0.44 km² (0.17 sq mi). Vatican City State was founded on 11 February 1929 following the signing of the Lateran Pacts between the Holy See and Italy. Located within Vatican City is the Apostolic Palace, the residence of the Pope. Italian, Latin, French 825 (2019) 0.44 sq. km. (109 acres) VA Pontifical Academy of Sciences The aim of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences is to promote the progress of the mathematical, physical and natural sciences and the study of epistemological problems related thereto. Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences The Pontifical Academy for the study of the social sciences, primarily economics, sociology, law and political science, established by the Holy Father John Paul II on 1 January 1994. Pontificia Università Gregoriana Site of the Pontifical Gregorian University. Pontificia Università Lateranense Official site of the Pontifical Lateran University Vatican Library The Library of the Holy See. Science & Research The Vatican Observatory One of the oldest astronomical research institutions in the world. Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September) Type: Papacy; ecclesiastical governmental and administrative capital of the Roman Catholic Church. Chief of state: Pope FRANCIS (since 13 March 2013) Independence: Lateran Pacts confirming independence and sovereignty of The Holy See signed with Italy on 11 February 1929. Suffrage: Limited to Cardinals less than 80 years old. Constitution: new Fundamental Law promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 26 November 2000. Text of the new Fundamental Law Natural resources: none Agriculture products: none Industries: Printing; production of coins, medals, postage stamps, a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities.

British Virgin Islands

Destination British Virgin Islands, short BVI, they are part of the Virgin Islands, a group of islands and islets of the Lesser Antilles, located in the eastern Caribbean, 100 km (62 mi) east of Puerto Rico's coast, and 1,800 km (1120 mi) southeast of Miami. The BVI are a British overseas territory, there are four main islands and some smaller ones. The major islands are Tortola, which is home to Road Town, the capital and largest city of the territory, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, and Jost Van Dyke. English, Spanish 29,802 (2018) 153 sq km (59 sq miles) VG VGB H. Lavity Stoutt Community College - HLSCC Institution for higher education in the BVI. Climate: Subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds. Overseas territory of the UK with internal self-governing. Natural resources: Sun, sand, sea, surf. Agriculture products: Fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish. Industries: Tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore financial sevice. Exports partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, USA Imports partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, USA

US Virgin Islands

Destination US Virgin Islands, a virtual guide to America's Caribbean paradise. The group of islands and islets are part of the Lesser Antilles located in the eastern Caribbean, 63 km (39 mi) east of Puerto Rico and 1,770 km (1100 mi) southeast of Miami. The three main islands are the hilly, volcanic islands of St. Thomas and St. John, which border the North Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Caribbean Sea to the south, and St. Croix in south, the largest island of USVI is entirely in the Caribbean Sea. The archipelago has a combined land area of 347 km² (134 sq mi). Highest point is Crown Mountain on Saint Thomas at 474 m (1555 ft). English, Spanish or Spanish Creole, French 1.07 lakhs (2018) 347 km² (133 sq mi) VI VIR UVI Libraries Site of the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) Libraries. University of the Virgin Islands A liberal arts, land-grant institution with campuses at St. Croix and St. Thomas. Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season September to November. unincorporated territory of the USA with policy relations between the Virgin Islands and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior. Natural resources: Sun, sand, sea, surf Agriculture products: Fruit, vegetables, sorghum; Senepol cattle. Industries: Tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics. Import & Exports partners: USA, Puerto Rico


Destination Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), a largely mountainous island nation in East Asia, formerly known as Formosa. Taiwan is located north of the Philippines and the South China Sea, about 180 km off the southeastern coast of China, separated from the mainland by the Taiwan Strait. The island shares maritime borders with China, Japan, and the Philippines Putonghua (Mandarin Chinese, official), Holo Taiwanese, Hakka, indigenous languages (Formosan) 2.38 crores (2018) 36,188 km² (13,972 sq. mi.) TW TWN National Taiwan University The predecessor of National Taiwan University was Taihoku (Taipei) Imperial University, founded by the Japanese in 1928. Climate: Maritime subtropical Type: Multi-party democracy. Constitution: 25 December 1946; last amended 2000. Agriculture products: Rice, corn, vegetables, fruit, tea; pigs, poultry, beef, milk, fish. Industries: Electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing. Exports - commodities: semiconductors, petrochemicals, automobile/auto parts, ships, wireless communication equipment, flat display displays, steel, electronics, plastics, computers Imports - commodities: oil/petroleum, semiconductors, natural gas, coal, steel, computers, wireless communication equipment, automobiles, fine chemicals, textiles


A virtual guide to Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan, a mountainous, landlocked country in central Asia, bordered by Afghanistan in south, Uzbekistan in west, Kyrgyzstan in north, and by China in east. Separated from the Kashmir region by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor. Tajikistan landscape is dominated by the Pamir and Alay mountains, largest body of water is Karakul lake, located in the Tajik National Park in the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan's . Tajik (sole official language); Russian 91 lakhs (2018) 143,100 km² (55,251 sq. mi) TJ Tajikistan Development Gateway: Education About education in Tajikistan. Tajikistan International University TIU Dushanbe, founded in 2003. Tajik-Russian (Slavic) University A Tajikistan and the Russian Federation supranational institution of higher learning in Dushanbe. Technological University of Tajikistan The former Tajik Higher College of Technology, Dushanbe. Climate: Mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir mountains. Type: Republic. Independence: 9 September 1991 (from USSR). Constitution: 6 November 1994. Natural resources: Hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, gold, silver, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten. Agriculture products: Cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats. Industries: Aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, textiles, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators. Exports - commodities: Aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles.


Destination Tanzania, formerly known as Tanganyika. In 1964, Tanganyika united with the Island of Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanzania, the largest of the East African countries and sadly one of the poorest countries in the world. Tanzania is located east of Africa's Great Lakes north of Mozambique and south of Kenya, it has a coastline at the Indian Ocean in east. The nation is bordered by six other African countries: Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia, it also shares maritime borders with the Comoros and the Seychelles. It has shorelines at three of the Great Lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Nyassa (Lake Malawi). Kiswahili (Swahili, Kiunguja), and English (both official), Arabic 50.1 million (2016) 945 000 km² (378 000 sq. mi.) TZ TZA Mzumbe University Official website of the University at Mzumbe, a public university in Morogoro. University Of Dar Es Salaam The first University of Tanzania consists of six faculties, five institutes and two colleges, established in 1970. The university offers Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral degrees. Climate: Varies from tropical to arid to temperate. Type: Unitary Republic. Independence: Tanganyika 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship), Zanzibar 1963 (from UK). Union formed 1964. Constitution: 1982. Natural resources: Hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel. Agriculture products: Coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (organic insecticide), cashew nuts, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; livestock. Industries: Agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); diamond, gold, and iron mining, oil refining. Exports - commodities: gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton. Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil


Discover Thailand, the Kingdom in Southeast Asia. The country is bordered in west and northwest by Myanmar (Burma), in south west by the Andaman Sea, in east and north east by Lao PDR, in south east by Cambodia, in south by the Gulf of Thailand (an inlet of the South China Sea), and by Malaysia. In south the country occupies a part of the Malay Peninsula. Thailand covers an area of 513,120 km², the country is just slightly larger than Spain or slightly more than twice the size of the U.S. state of Wyoming. Until 1939 the country was known as Siam. Thai (official language); English 6.94 crores (2018) 513,115 km² (198,114 sq. mi.) TH THA Bangkok is Thailand's center of culture and education. The city is the seat of six major universities: Chulalongkorn, Thammasat, Silpakorn, Kasetsart, Mahidol, and the Asian Institute of Technology (1959). Bangkok Asian Institute of Technology (?????????????????????????) Technical university,and an international institution for higher education in engineering, advanced technologies, and management and planning. Assumption University Frst international university of Thailand, AU is led by the Brothers of St. Gabriel - founded in 1969. Chulalongkorn University Thailand's first institution of higher learning - founded in 1917. Kasetsart University Known as Kaset University is a top-ranked Public University in Thailand, it was founded in 1943. Kasetsart University (english version) Mahidol University Mahidol University, the public research university originated from the first institution of higher learning in Thailand. Climate: Thailand is a warm and rather humid tropical country with monsoonal climate. Seasons--Dry: March to May, Rainy: June to October, Cool: November to February. Type: Constitutional monarchy. Constitution: New constitution promulgated 11 October 1997. Independence: Never colonized; traditional founding date 1238. Natural resources:Tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, gypsum, lignite, fluorite; fish, arable land. Agriculture products: Rice, cassava (tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans. Industries:Tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry, electric appliances and components, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, world's second-largest tungsten producer, and third-largest tin producer. Exports - commodities: electronics, computer parts, automobiles and parts, electrical appliances, machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rice, rubber Imports - commodities: capital goods, intermediate goods and raw materials, consumer goods, fuels


Destination Tibet, a virtual guide to the "Land of Snows", also known as “the Roof the World”. Tibet is located on the northern side of the Himalayas, north of India, Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar (Burma) on the barren tableland of the Tibetan Plateau, the world's highest region with an average altitude of more than 4,000 m above sea level. Since China's "Peaceful Liberation of Tibet" in 1949-50, the region is de facto an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, known as the Xizang Autonomous Region. 1.2m sq km (471 700 sq miles), Bod: 2.5 million sq. km 31.8 lakhs (Dec 2014) 1.228 million km² TIB TI Tibet University Site of the Tibet University, founded in 1985 (in Chinese.) Climate: Average temperture 28 degrees Celsius (Summer) -15 degrees Celsius (in Winter), extremely dry except during rainy season (July-August) Type: Communist party-led state (People's Republic of China) The Tibet Autonomous Region was founded on 9 September 1965. Natural resources: Forests, wildlife, mineral resources, uranium (world's largest uranium reserve), hydro-, geothermal energy. Agriculture products: Livestock and livestock products. Industries: Mining, wool spinning, carpets, forestry, food processing, printing, building materials and machinery, tourism.


A virtual guide to Timor-Leste, also known as East Timor. The relative new nation is situated in the eastern half of the island of Timor, at the eastern 'end' of the Lesser Sunda Islands, north of the Timor Sea and Australia. The country is bordered by Indonesia in west and the Savu Sea in north. The country occupies an area of 14,874 km², including the islands of Pulau Acrobat and Paula Jaco, compared it is about half the size of Belgium, or slightly larger than the Bahamas. Portuguese, Tetum (official); English, Bahasa Indonesia 12.7 lakhs (2018) 14,874 km² (5,742 sq. mi.) TS TLS National University of East Timor The leading institution of higher education in East Timor. Dili International School A private, non-profit institution and an English-language school situated in Dili. Education International Education International is monitoring the situation in Timor-Leste as the fledgling country plunged into chaos since the beginning of the unrest on 24 April. EI is concerned about the extent the unrest has affected teachers and children. Climate: Tropical; hot, semi-arid; rainy and dry seasons. Type: Parliamentary democracy. Independence: 28 November 1975 (from Portugal). Restoration of independence: 20 May 2002. (from Indonesia) Constitution: March 2002. Natural resources: Gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble. Agriculture products: Coffee, rice, corn, cassava, sweet potatoes, soybeans, cabbage, mangoes, bananas, vanilla. Industries: Printing, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth. Exports - commodities: Coffee, sandalwood, marble; note - potential for oil and vanilla exports.


Destination Togo, a narrow strip of land in Western Africa between Ghana to the west and Benin to the east, bordered in north by Burkina Faso it has a short coastline with palm-lined beaches and extensive lagoons and marshes on the Gulf of Guinea in south. The tropical country just north of the equator covers an area of 56,785 km², compared it is about the size of Croatia, or slightly smaller than West Virginia. French, Ewe and Mina, Kabye, Dagomba 78.9 lakhs (2018) 56,785 km² (21,925 sq miles) TG TGO American International School of Lome Provides US-style educational program to the international community in Lome. The British School of Lomé Boarding and Day School British style. Université de Lomé Official website of the university (in French). Government:Type: Republic since years under transition to multiparty democratic rule. Climate: Tropical; hot throughout the year, humid in south; semiarid in north. Natural resources: Phosphates (main source of foreign exchange), limestone, marble, arable land. Agriculture products: Coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish. Industries: Phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement; handicrafts, textiles, beverages. Exports - commodities: reexports, cocoa, gold powder, cotton, phosphates, coffee. Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products.


Destination Tonga, a virtual guide to the Polynesian kingdom formerly known as the Friendly Islands, an archipelago of more than 170 islands in the South Pacific Ocean south east of Fiji, south of Samoa, 2,000 km north east of Auckland, NZ and 3,280 km east of Brisbane, Australia. Tonga was united under one chief in 1845. This must have been quite an achievement because the mostly flat limestone islands are scattered over 700,000 km² (270,000 sq mi) of the southern Pacific Ocean, this is about the size of Texas Tongan, English 1.03 lakhs (2018) Area: 747 km² (288 sq mi) TO Atenisi Institute An institute for critical education in the South Pacific (needs an update). Tupou College Toloa Oldest secondary operating College for boys in the Pacific Islands, founded in 1866. University of the South Pacific Premier institution of tertiary education in the Pacific region, jointly owned by the governments of twelve island countries, USP is an international centre of excellence for teaching, research and consulting on all aspects of Pacific life. University of the South Pacific Libraries The Main Library of the University of the South Pacific based at Laucala Campus, Suva, Fiji. Climate: Subtropical, slightly cooler and less humid than most tropical areas. From November to April is cyclone season. Government: Type: Constitutional Monarchy (since 1875) Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate) Exports - commodities: squash, fish, vanilla beans, root crops Exports - partners: Japan, US, Fiji, NZ, South Korea, Samoa, Australia, American Samoa Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals Imports - partners: Fiji, NZ, China, US , Australia Natural resources: Fish, fertile soil.

Trinidad and Tobago

Destination Trinidad and Tobago, a virtual guide to the twin island republic separated by the Columbus Channel from Venezuela. Discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1498, Trinidad was settled by Spanish in 1577 and Tobago was settled by the English in 1616. The two islands were joined politically as a British colony in 1888. From 1958 to 1962 they were part of the short-lived West Indies Federation, together with Barbados and Jamaica and other former colonies of the United Kingdom. Trinidad and Tobago became a sovereign state in 1962. English 13.9 lakhs (2018) Area: 5,130 km² (1,980 sq. mi.) TT National Library Information System Trinidad and Tobago Library services. University of the West Indies St. Augustine Trinidad. Climate: Tropical; rainy season (June through December). Type: Parliamentary Democracy. Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK). Present constitution: 31 August 1976. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas. Agriculture products: Cocoa, sugarcane, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry. Industries: Petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles. Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, cereal and cereal products, cocoa, fish, preserved fruits, , cosmetics, household cleaners, plastic packaging Imports - commodities: mineral fuels, lubricants, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals, live animals


Destination Tunisia, a virtual guide to the smallest country in Northern Africa situated between Algeria and Libya. The country shares also maritime borders with Italy. Tunisia covers an area of 163,610 km², making it about two-thirds the size of the United Kingdom, or slightly larger than the US state of Georgia. Arabic (official), French. 1.16 crores (2018) 163,610 km² (63,170 sq. mi.) TU TUN Réseau National Universitaire RNU The National University Network. Higher Education Index Links to websites of Tunisian higher education, scientific research institutions, students and university services. Higher Education in Tunisia Information on Higher Education in Tunisia in Arabic, French and English. Université de Tunis The University of Tunis, leading institution of higher education in Tunisia. Université Libre de Tunis ULT will offer academic programs that are the equivalent in content and quality to those in Europe and the US. Climate: Hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Type: Republic Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France) Natural resources: Petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt. Agriculture products: Olives, olive oil, grain, dairy products, tomatoes, citrus fruit, beef, sugar beets, dates, almonds. Industries: Petroleum, mining, tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages. Exports - commodities: clothing, semi-finished goods and textiles, agricultural products, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, hydrocarbons, electrical equipment Imports - commodities: textiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs


Destination Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, a country between Europe and Asia located on the Anatolian peninsula in western Asia, with a small enclave in Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in south and east and by the Black Sea in north, by Armenia, Iran and Azerbaijan (exclave of Nakhchivan) in east, by Georgia in north east, by Bulgaria and Greece in north west, and by Iraq, and Syria in south east. Turkish (official), Kurdish, and Arabic 8.2 crores (2019) 783,562 km² (302,535 sq. mi.) TR TUR Ankara Üniversitesi The Ankara University, since 1946, formerly the Faculty of Political Science in Ankara (since 1859). Istanbul Technical University The world's third-oldest technical university, founded by Sultan Mustafa III in 1773. Istanbul Üniversitesi The Istanbul University was established in 1453 by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II.. Marmara Üniversitesi The Marmara University, a public university in the Fatih district of Istanbul. Milli Kutuphane The National Library, Ankara. Turkish Academy of Science (TÜBA) Founded in 1993. Turkish Counsel of Higher Education Climate: Moderate in coastal areas, harsher temperatures inland. Type: Republic Independence: 29 October 1923 Constitution: 7 November 1982 Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower. Agriculture products: Tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock. Industries: Textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper. Exports - commodities: apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment


A virtual guide to Turkmenistan, a country in Central Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, south of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and north of Iran and Afghanistan. Turkmenistan occupies an area of 488,100 km², compared it is slightly smaller than Spain, or slightly larger than the US state of California. Turkmen. Russian 58.5 lakhs (2018) 488,100 km² (188,456 sq mi) TM TKM Ashgabat International School Information about the private non-profit institution. Turkmen State University Type: Republic, with a single-party system; the 'Democratic' Party of Turkmenistan, is the only one legally permitted. Independence: 27 October 1991 (from USSR). Constitution: 18 May 1992. Natural resources: Oil, natural gas, coal, precious non-ferrous and rare metals, celestine, sulfur. Agriculture products: Cotton, wheat, melons; livestock. Industries: Natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing. Exports - commodities: gas, crude oil, petrochemicals, textiles, cotton fiber Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs


A virtual guide to Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, a Polynesian island nation located in the Central Pacific Ocean just below the equator and about 1,000 km north of Fiji and about 2,000 km east of the Solomon Islands. The Ellice Islands were administered as a British Protectorate, they were part of the British Western Pacific Territories from 1892 to 1916. In 1916 the British established the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony which existed until 1974. Tuvalu became independent on 1 October 1978. Tuvaluan, English. Samoan, Kiribati 11,508 (2018) 26 km² TU TUV University of the South Pacific Premier institution of tertiary education in the Pacific region, jointly owned by the governments of twelve island countries, USP is an international center of excellence for teaching, research and consulting on all aspects of Pacific life. University of the South Pacific Libraries The Main Library of the University of the South Pacific is based at Laucala Campus, Suva, Fiji. Climate: Tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March-November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November-March). Type: Constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. Independence: 1 October 1978 (from U.K.). Constitution: 1 October 1978. Natural resources: Coconuts; fish.


A virtual guide to the island of Réunion, an overseas department of France. The island, formerly known as Île Bourbon belongs to the Mascarene islands, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean, 740 km (460 mi) east of Madagascar and 180 km (115 mi) south west of Mauritius. The mountainous island is of volcanic origin, 70.5 km long (43.8 mi, from north west to south east) and about 50 km (31 mi) wide. French (official), Creole 8.6 lakhs (Jan 2020) 2,510 km² (969 sq. mi.) RE Académie de la Réunion Official website of the academy (French). Université de la Réunion The Reunion University (French). Climate: Tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; hot and rainy from November to April, cool and dry from May to November. French overseas department (département d'outre-mer, or DOM). Natural resources: Fish, arable land, hydropower. Agriculture products: Sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco, tropical fruits, vegetables, corn. Industries: Sugar, rum, cigarettes, handicraft items, flower oil extraction; tourism.


A virtual guide to Romania, a country in East Central Europe bordering on the Black Sea in south east, it borders Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldova, Serbia and Ukraine, and it shares a maritime border with Turkey. Romania covers an area of 238,391 km², compared it is somewhat smaller than the United Kingdom (242,900 km²), or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Oregon. Romanian, Hungarian, German, Chinese. 1.94 crores (2019) 238,391 km² (92,043 sq. mi.). RO ROU Alexandru Ioan Cuza University Public university located in Ia?i, founded in 1860. Ion Mincu - Institute of Architecture - IMUAU University of Architecture and Urbanism, Bucharest. University of Bacau Public university in Bacau. University of Bucharest Public university founded in 1864. Universitatea de Nord A multidisciplinary institution, Baia Mare. Universitatea de Vest, The University of the West in Timisoara was founded in 1962. Climate: Temperate-continental, four seasons, cold winters with frequent snow; sunny summers. Type: Republic. Constitution: 8 December 1991, amended by referendum October 2003. Natural resources: Petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower. Agriculture products: Wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep. Industries: Textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining. Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials


Destination Russia, a Nations Online Project Profile of the world's largest country. The country, officially the Russian Federation, which is commonly referred to as Russia, is located partly in Eastern Europe and partly in North Asia; it borders the Arctic Ocean to the north. Russia is bordered by 14 countries, Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Norway, Poland, and Ukraine. It also shares maritime borders with Japan, Sweden, Turkey, and the United States. Russian 14.45 crores (2018) 17 million km² (6.5 million sq. mi.) RU, RUS The Moscow State University Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU), a public research university, was the first Russian university founded in 1755. Russian Academy of Science The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was established by order of Emperor Peter I in February 1724. Russia's national academy currently includes more than 600 institutions and over 50,000 scientific researchers. Saint-Petersburg State University The oldest Russian higher education institution is a state-owned university based in Saint Petersburg, founded in 1724. SPbU is the second-best multi-faculty university in Russia after Moscow State University. Novosibirsk State University NSU is a national research university located in Novosibirsk in the southwestern part of Siberia. Samara State Aerospace University SSAU trains specialists for the rocket and space, aviation, electronic, metallurgical, and automotive industries. Samara State University A leading multi-faculty university in the city of Samara. Tyumen State University The first university in the Tyumen Oblast consists of 12 academic institutes and trains specialists in 175 fields. Climate: Northern continental, from subarctic to subtropical. Federation. Independence: August 24, 1991. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, timber, furs, precious and nonferrous metals. Agriculture products: Grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits, beef, and milk. Industries: Complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals. All forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft, space vehicles, and shipbuilding. Road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, and handicrafts. Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures. Russia is the second-largest conventional arms exporter after the United States [2]. Imports - commodities: machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel.


A virtual guide to "the land of a thousand hills". Rwanda is a relative small landlocked, hilly country in Central Africa, located south of the Equator and east of Lake Kivu, one of the African Great Lakes. It is bordered by Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, and Uganda. The country covers an area of 26,338 km², compared it is about the size of Macedonia (Rep.), or slightly smaller than the US state of Maryland. French, English, Kinyarwanda 1.23 crores (2018) 26,338 km² (10,169 sq. mi.) RW RWA Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda The National Agricultural Research Institute. Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management The first public technological institute of higher learning in Rwanda. National University of Rwanda Founded in 1963; university home page (English/French) Climate: Mild and temperate, with two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January). Type: Republic. Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship). Constitution: 26 May 2003. Natural resources: Gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land. Agriculture products: Coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock. Industries: Cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes. Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, hides, tin ore. Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material.


A virtual guide to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, a country in South Asia with a coastline on the Arabian Sea in south. Pakistan is bordered by Afghanistan, China, India, and Iran. Within Pakistan's landscape there is the flat fertile Indus plain in east, nurtured by the Indus, the country's longest river and a key water resource. Pakistan's north is mountainous. The nation's highest mountains are in the Himalayas in north east. Pakistan's largest and least populated province is Balochistan situated on the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west. Urdu, English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushtu, Balochi, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki 21.22 crores (2018) 796,000 km² (311,000 sq. mi.) PK PAK Federal Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education - FBISE FBISE Islamabad, Pakistan. Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education Board Dera Ghazi Khan B.I.S.E D . G . Khan Board Of Intermediate Education Karachi Board Of Intermediate & Secondary Education Lahore BISE Lahore Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education, Peshawar Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute Institute - GIK Institute of Engineeering Sciences and Technology. Hamdard University Official site of Hamdard University, Karachi. Lahore University of Management Sciences The Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) is a national university. National University of Science and Technology Official site of NUST, Islamabad. Quaid-I-Azam University Pakistan's most prestigious university. Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute Institute of Science & Technology. University of Balochistan Official website of the university. University of Karachi Pakistan's biggest university established in 1951. Type: Parliamentary democracy. Independence: 14 August 1947. Climate: Mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north. Natural resources: Extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone. Agriculture products: Cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs. Industries: Textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer. Exports - commodities: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sporting goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs Imports - commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea


Destination Palau, a virtual travel guide to Belau (the traditional name). Palau is an independent republic since 1990. It was part of the Pacific Islands Trust Territory administered by the United States. The archipelago of the Western Caroline Islands chain has a population of about 20,000 (2010) people spread across 250 islands. Capital city of Palau is Ngerulmud in Melekeok state. English, Palauan 20,000 (2010) 459 km² (177 sq. mi.) PW Palau Ministry of Education The site provides information on Palau's school system. Palau Community College Institution for post high-school occupational and academic training. Climate: Tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November. Type: Constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 1 October 1994. Internally self-governed since 1981 until. independence (from U.S.-administered UN trusteeship) on 1 October 1994. Constitution: 1 January 1981. Natural resources: Forests, minerals (especially gold), marine products, deep-seabed minerals. Agriculture products: Coconuts, copra, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes. Industries: Tourism, craft items (from shell, wood, pearls), construction, garment making. Exports - commodities: shellfish, tuna, copra, garments Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, metals; foodstuffs


Palestinian territories, a virtual guide to Gaza and the West Bank. "Palestinian territories" and "occupied Palestinian territories" (OPT or oPt) refers to the territories of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel. Arabic, Hebrew 4.2 million (2012) 360 km², West Bank 5,860 km² PS Al-Azhar University of Gaza Gaza-Srtip - Palestine, founded in 1991. Al-Quds University The Arab University in Jerusalem. An-Najah National University Popular University at Nablus. Bethlehem University A Catholic Christian co-educational institution of higher learning founded in 1973. Birzeit University Birzeit University is the first institution of higher education to be established in Palestine. Center for Palestine Research & Studies (CPRS) Independent academic "think tank" for Palestinian policy and strategy. Islamic University of Gaza Higher education institution in Gaza Palestine, founded 1978. Climate: A Mediterranean climate prevails in Palestine. Summers are hot and dry. Winters are rainy and cold. Limited civilian jurisdiction by the Palestinian National Authority, the interim administrative organization that nominally governs parts of the Palestinian territories of Gaza strip and West Bank. Natural resources: arable land, natural gas. Agriculture products: olives, citrus, vegetables; beef, dairy products Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement, textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs. Import & Exports partners: Israel, Jordan


A virtual guide to Panama, a country in Central America on the Isthmus of Panama, the landbridge between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean that connects North and South America. Panama is bordered by Colombia and Costa Rica. The country is best known for the Panama Canal, a man-made waterway, opened in 1914. The canal cuts through the country, linking the Caribbean Sea (Atlantic) with the Pacific Ocean. The canal is owned and administered by the Republic of Panama, it is one of the two most-strategic artificial waterways in the world (the other is the Suez Canal in Egypt). Until 1999 the Panama Canal was controlled by the United States. Spanish, English 41.8 lakhs (2018) 74,177 km² (28,640 sq. mi.) PA PAN Universidad del Istmo The university was founded in 1987 in Panama City, it has its main headquarters in Panama City and regional headquarters in David, La Chorrera, Los Pueblos, Santiago, Colón, Chitré, Penonomé, and Changuinola. Universidad Latina The Latin University of Panama is a private university in Panama City. Universidad de Panamá The University of Panama, popularly known as 'La Nacional', is a state university and one of the main universities in Panama with institutions all over the country. Universidad Santa Maria La Antigua Private university in Panama City. Climate: tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season, short dry season (January to May) Type: Constitutional democracy. Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia). Constitution: 11 October 1972; amended 1983 and 1994 and reformed in 2004. Natural resources: Copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower. Agriculture products: Bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp. Industries: Construction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling Exports - commodities: copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys Imports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines

Papua New Guinea

A virtual guide to Papua New Guinea (PNG), a group of islands and an idependent state in Maritime Southeast Asia. Its mainland on the island of New Guinea is bordered by Indonesia. Papua New Guinea shares maritime borders with Australia, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Solomon Islands, and New Caledonia (France). Major islands are New Britain, Latangai, Bougainville, PNG covers a land area of 462,840 km² (178,703 sq. mi.), this is somewhat smaller than Spain, or slightly larger than California. Three official: English, Tok Pisin, and Motu 86.1 lakhs (2018) 462,840 km² (178,703 sq. mi.) PG PNG University of Papua New Guinea Underfunded public university with two major campuses in Port Moresby. Waigani main campus and Taurama Medical Faculty. The Papua New Guinea University of Technology Unitech is located 9 km north of Lae, capital of the Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea. Climate: Tropical. NW monsoon, Dec-Mar. SE monsoon, May-Oct. Type: Constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy. Independence: 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship) Constitution: September 16, 1975. Natural resources: Gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries. Agriculture products: Coffee, cocoa, copra, palm kernels, tea, sugar, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, vanilla; shell fish, poultry, pork. Industries: Copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil production, petroleum refining; construction, tourism. Exports - commodities: oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals


Destination Paraguay, a virtual guide to the landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Bolivia in northwest. The Pilcomayo river, a tributary of the Paraguay river, they both form sections of the border with Argentina in southwest. Parts of its southern borders are defined by the Paraná river, the second longest river in South America (the longest is the Amazon River). The Paraguay river and the Apa river form portions of Paraguay's border with Brazil. Paraguay occupies an area of 406,752 km² making it is slightly larger than 1.5 times the size of the United Kingdom or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of California. Spanish, Guaraní 69.6 lakhs (2018) 406,752 km² (157,047 sq. mi.) PY PRY Universidad Católica "Nuestra Señora de la Asunción" Private Catholic university in Asunción. Universidad Columbia del Paraguay Private university in Asunción, founded in 1943. Universidad Nacional de Asunción UNA is the oldest and most traditional university in the country. Climate: Temperate east of the Paraguay River, semiarid to the west. Type: Constitutional Republic. Independence: May 1811 (from Spain). Constitution: June 1992. Natural resources: Hydroelectric sites, forests. Agriculture products: Cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber. Industries: Sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, metallurgic, electric power. Exports - commodities: electricity , soybeans, livestock feed, cotton, meat, edible oils, wood, leather Imports - commodities: road vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, pesticides, electrical machinery, tractors, chemicals, vehicle parts


A virtual guide to Peru, the third largest country in South America, with a 2,400 km long coastline at the South Pacific Ocean (what a beach). Countries with international borders to Peru are Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador. The country extends along the Andes, the world's longest exposed mountain range, it covers an area of 1,285,216 km², making it 2.5 times the size of Spain, or slightly smaller than Alaska. Spanish is the principal language. Quechua, Aymara 3.2 crores (2018) 1.28 million km² (496,225 sq. mi.) PE PER Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú Private university founded in 1917. Universidad de Lima The University of Lima. Universidad del Pacífico Educational portal focused on career resources for students. Climate: Arid and mild in coastal area, temperate to frigid in the Andes, and warm and humid in jungle lowlands Type: Constitutional republic. Independence: 28 July 1821. Constitution: 31 December 1993. Natural resources: Copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas. Agriculture products: Coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish. Industries: Mining and refining of minerals and metals, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas, fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing, steel, metal fabrication. Exports - commodities: copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys Imports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines


Destination Philippines, a Nations Online Project Country Profile of the archipelago in Maritime Southeast Asia. The island nation is situated south of Taiwan, between the South China Sea in the west and the Pacific Ocean in the east. The country consists of more than 7,641 islands (according to the Philippines government). It shares maritime borders with China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Palau, Vietnam, and Taiwan. The Philippines' three main island groups are Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The country occupies a combined land area of 300,000 km²; this is about the size of Italy or slightly larger than the size of the US state of Arizona. Filipino and English (official). Filipino, which is based on Tagalog 108 million (in 2020) 300,000 km² (115 739 sq m) PH, PHL De La Salle University The university was founded as De La Salle College in 1911. University of the Philippines-Diliman UP Diliman is the flagship university of the University of the Philippines System, founded in 1949. University of the Philippines The University of the Philippines in Manila was founded in 1908. University of Santo Tomas The University of Santo Tomas is a Roman Catholic research university in Manila. The Philippines University System A gateway to Philippines Universities. Climate: Tropical, March to May is hot and dry, rainy season from June to October, November to February moderate. Average temperatures: 78°F / 25°C to 90°F / 32°C Government: Type: Republic. Independence: 12 June 1898 (from Spain). Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987 Natural resources: Timber, limited offshore petroleum, extensive mineral deposits of copper, gold, silver, nickel, lead, and chromium. Agriculture products: Rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangoes, pork, eggs, beef, fish. Industries: electronics assembly, textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing. Exports - commodities: semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits Imports - commodities: electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic


Pitcairn is a group of five islands in the southern Pacific Ocean, of which one is inhabited, it is the last remaining British colony in the Pacific. It is supposed that Polynesians lived on Pitcairn, but when Spanish explorers in the 15th century discovered the island it was uninhabited. In 1790 Pitcairn was settled by the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions. Nearly 50 years later it became the first British Pacific island colony in 1838. English (official), Pitcairnese 67 (2011) 47 sq. km PN Pitcairn Islands Study Center Pitcairn Islands Study Center contains the world's largest collection of materials relating to the Mutiny on the Bounty. Climate: Tropical; hot and humid; modified by southeast trade winds; dry season (May to October), rainy season (November to March) Overseas territory of the UK Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II Constitution: 1838; reformed 1904 with additional reforms in 1940; further refined by the Local Government Ordinance of 1964. Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish, honey


A virtual guide to Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, a country in central Europe with a coastline on the Baltic Sea in north. Poland is bordered by Germany in west, the Czech Republic in south west, Slovakia in south, Ukraine in south east, Belarus in east and Lithuania and Russia in north east. The country shares maritime borders with Denmark and Sweden. Poland covers an area of 312,685 km², making it slightly larger than Italy or slightly smaller than the US state of New Mexico. Polish 3.8 crores (2019) 312,685 km² (120,727 sq. mi.) PL POL University of Gdansk Largest institute of higher education in the Pomeranian region. Uniwersytet Lodzki University of Lodz Uniwersytet Wroclawski University of Wroclaw, largest city in the West of Poland. Uniwersytet Warszawski Warsaw University, founded in 1816 is the biggest and most respected university in Poland. Climate: Temperate with both maritime and continental elements Type: Republic. Constitution: approved by national referendum on 25 May 1997. Natural resources: Coal, copper, sulfur, natural gas, silver, lead, salt. Agriculture products: Grains, hogs, dairy, potatoes, horticulture, sugar beets, oilseed. Industries: Machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles. Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, intermediate manufactured goods%, miscellaneous manufactured goods, food and live animals Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, intermediate manufactured goods, chemicals, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials


Destination Portugal, a Nations Online Project Country Profile of the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa), a sovereign state in western Europe. It comprises of the continental part of Portugal on the Iberian Peninsula and the small archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean. The most western European state has a shoreline at the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered to the north and in the east by only one other country, Spain. Portugal shares a maritime border with Morocco. Portuguese, of Latin origin 1.03 crores (2019) 92,090 km² (35,556 sq. mi.) PT, PRT Universidade Catolica Portuguesa (UCP) UCP is ranked among Portugal's best universities; it operates four centers, at Lisbon (headquarters), Porto, Braga, and Viseu. Universidade de Coimbra The university of Coimbra is among the oldest universities in continuous operation in the world and the oldest university in Portugal, founded in 1290. Universidade de Lisboa ULisboa is a public research university, and Portugal's largest university. Universidade Nova de Lisboa The public university in the Portuguese capital was founded in 1973. Universidade do Porto U.Porto is the second-largest university in the country in terms of student numbers; it was founded in 1911. Porto School of Architecture The Faculty of Architecture of the University of Porto is among the most prestigious architecture schools in Europe. Faculty of Engineering at the University of Porto FEUP is one of the oldest and most prestigious educational institution in engineering in Portugal. Climate: Maritime temperate, the average annual temperature is 16°C (61°F) Founding of the Portuguese State: 1143. Founding of the Republic: 1910. Government type: Republic ruled by a Constitution. Constitution: Effective 25 April 1976; revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, 25 November 1992, and 3 September 1997. Natural resources: Fish, tungsten, iron, copper, tin, and uranium ores. Agriculture: Products--forestry, fisheries, cork, wine. Agriculture products: Grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, beef, dairy products. Industries: Textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism. Exports - commodities: agricultural products, food products, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals Imports - commodities: agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semiconductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico, a tropical Caribbean travel destination and one of the islands of the Greater Antilles in the eastern Caribbean Sea, located 125 km (78 mi) east of the island Hispaniola, (which is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic). If compared, Puerto Rico's area is slightly smaller than Cyprus or slightly less than three times the size of the US state of Rhode Island. Spanish, English 31.9 lakhs (2019) 13,800 km² PR Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico Founded in 1912 as the Polytechnic Institute. Universidad de Puerto Rico Universidad del Sagrado Corazón Santurce, Puerto Rico (Spanish). Science and Research Arecibo Observatory National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, delivers also the data for the SETI Project - Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence. Climate: Tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation, south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north. Type: Commonwealth. Chief of state: President George W. BUSH. Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US) Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; effective 25 July 1952 Natural resources: Some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and offshore oil. Agriculture products: Milk (dairy), Poultry, Plantains, Ornamental Plants, Coffee, Beef and Veal, Bananas, Pork, Fighting Cocks, Seeds and Seedlings. Industries: Pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products, tourism. Exports - commodities: chemicals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment. Imports - commodities: chemicals, machinery and equipment, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products.


Destination Namibia, a Nations Online Project Country Profile of the African nation in the southwestern part of the continent. The country borders Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe and is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The Orange River to the south marks the southern border with South Africa. The Kunene River and the Okavango River create sections of the nation's northern border with Angola. Only on 21 March 1990, Namibia gained independence from South Africa. The country's name is derived from the Namib Desert. English, Ovambo, Khoekhoe, and Afrikaans (lingua franca), German 2.5 million (2020, estimates) 824,292 km² (318,260 sq. mi.) NA, NAM Namibia University of Science and Technology NUST NUST, formerly known as Polytechnic of Namibia, is a Namibian institution for the development of Science and Technology. University of Namibia The National University, Windhoek. SchoolNet Namibia SchoolNet Namibia had established a network among schools and allied educational institutions in Namibia. In 2009, SchoolNet fell out of favor with the Namibian government and was dissolved Climate: mostly hot, varies from hyper-arid and semi-arid to subtropical; cold desert climate in the southwest. Type: Republic. Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate). Natural resources: Diamonds, copper, gold, uranium, lead, tin, zinc, salt, vanadium, fisheries, and wildlife; suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore. Agriculture products: Livestock, millet, fish and fish products, grapes, wool. Industries: Meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products; mining. Exports - commodities: Diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, white fish and mollusks Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals Imports partners: South Africa, China, United Kingdom, Germany. Currency: South African Rand (ZAR)


Nauru achieved independence in 1968 and joined the UN in 1999. Revenues of the island have come from exports of phosphates, but reserves are nearing exhaustion in 2005. Since few other resources exist Nauru relies on imports for almost everything, mainly from Australia, the islands former occupier and later major source of support. In 2001 Nauru signed an agreement with Australia to accommodate more than 1000 asylum seekers on the island, in return for millions of dollars in aid. Nauruan, English 12,704 (2018) 21 sq km, (8 sq miles) NR University of the South Pacific Premier institution of tertiary education in the Pacific region, jointly owned by the governments of twelve island countries, USP is an international centre of excellence for teaching, research and consulting on all aspects of Pacific life. University of the South Pacific Libraries The Main Library of the University of the South Pacific based at Laucala Campus, Suva, Fiji. Climate: Tropical, rainy season (November to February) Type: Republic Independence: 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, New Zealand-, and United Kingdom-administered UN trusteeship) Natural resources: Phosphates (reserves are now depleted), Fish. Agriculture products: Coconuts.


Destination Nepal, a virtual guide to the former Kingdom in the Himalayas between India and China. Officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, a landlocked country in South Asia bordered by the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Sikkim, and in north by Tibet. The country along the southern slopes of the Himalayan mountain range is host to eight of the 10 highest peaks in the world, including Mount Everest, Lhotse, Makalu, and Kanchenjunga (on the border to Sikkim). Nepali, Tibeto-Burman, Lhotsamkha, Nepalbhasa, Tamang 2.81 crores (2018) 147,181 km² (56,826 sq.mi.) NP Kathmandu University Nepal's National University is an autonomous non-government, public institution, in Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok district. Rangjung Yeshe Institute Centre for Buddhist Studies at Rangjung Yeshe Institute. Kathmandu University School of Management (KUSOM) School of Management is a management development institute under the Kathmandu University. Climate: The climate in Nepal varies with elevation, tropical in the lower southern part Tarai, mid-hills alpine and the high mountains polar; elevation ranges from 90 to 8848 meters. Type: Republic Natural resources: Quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore. Agriculture products: Rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat. Industries: Tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette; cement and brick production. Exports - commodities: clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, jute goods Imports - commodities: petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine


Destination Netherlands, a nation in western Europe, bordered by the North Sea in west and north. Border countries are Belgium, and Germany. The country also shares maritime borders with France and the United Kingdom. European Netherlands is a low-lying country with around a quarter of its territory at or below sea level, it covers an area of 41,543 km² making it just slightly larger than Switzerland (41,285 km²) or half the size of the U.S. state of South Carolina. Dutch; English 1.73 crores (2019) 41,543 km² (16,040 sq. mi.) NL NLD Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschappen (OCW) The Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Rijksuniversiteit Groningen The Stateuniversity of Groningen, founded in 1614, one of the oldest universities in Europe. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Established in 1956, one of the leading Universities of Technology in Europe. Universiteit of Amsterdam Universiteit Leiden Universiteit Maastricht Universiteit Tilburg Best Law Faculty of Europe (1998) Universiteit Utrecht Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Climate: Temperate maritime. Type: Constitutional monarchy. Head of State: Queen Beatrix Natural resources: Natural gas, petroleum, peat, limestone, salt, sand and gravel, arable land. Agriculture products: Grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; livestock. Industries: Agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing. Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, clothing

New Caledonia

New Caledonia | Territoire des Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dependances Country Profile New Caledonia Flag Flag of New Caledonia is the French flag Background: New Caledonia is an island group located in the South Pacific east of Australia. The French overseas territory comprises of the 400 km long major island "Grande Terre" divided in a Northern and a Southern province, the archipelago of Belep in northwest, the île des Pins in southeast and the Loyalty islands Ouvéa, Lifou, Tiga and Maré located northeast of the main island. French (official), more than 30 Melanesian-Polynesian 2.84 lakhs (2018) 18,575 km² (7,171 sq. mi.) NC Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie The University of New Caledonia. Climate: Moderate, tropical oceanic, hot and humid; modified by southeast trade winds. Overseas territory of France since 1956. Natural resources: Nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper. Agriculture - products: Vegetables; beef, deer, other livestock products. Exports partners: Japan, France, South Korea, China, Australia, Belgium Imports partners:France, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand (NZ) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean located about 2,000 km (1,300 mi) southeast of Australia. The island-nation consists of some smaller islands and two main islands, the North Island (Te-Ika-a-Maui) and the South Island (Te Wai Pounamu), which are separated by the Cook Strait. New Zealand shares maritime borders with Australia, the island nations of Fiji and Tonga. New Zealand's islands are the surface area of the continent of Zealandia. Zealandia, now for the most part submerged, was formerly a large portion of the super-continent of Gondwanaland. English, Maori 4.9 million (beginning 2020) 270,467 km² (104,427 sq. mi.) NZ, NZL, .nz Lincoln University University at Christchurch, Canterbury. University of Auckland New Zealand's largest university, established in 1883. University of Canterbury (Whare Wananga o Waitaha) The university's official website. University of Otago New Zealand's oldest university, founded in 1869. The University of Waikato (Te Whare Wananga o Waikato ) The University of Waikato at Tauranga. Victoria University of Wellington (Te Herenga Waka) Official website of Victoria University of Wellington. Whitecliffe College of Art & Design International art school. Science The Royal Society of New Zealand Association for the advancement of science and technology. Climate: with sharp regional contrasts from temperate to subtropical. Type: Parliamentary democracy. Constitution: New Zealand has no single constitutional document. Independence: Declared a dominion in 1907. Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II. Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau. Natural resources: Natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone. Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables, wool, beef, lamb and mutton, dairy products, fish. Industries: Food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining. Exports - commodities: Dairy products, meat and edible offal, logs and wood articles, fruit, crude oil, wine. Imports - commodities: Petroleum and petroleum products, mechanical machinery, vehicles and parts, electrical machinery, textiles.


Destination Nicaragua, a virtual guide to this country in the center of the Central American isthmus, bordering both the Caribbean Sea (Atlantic Ocean) and the North Pacific Ocean. It is bordered by Costa Rica and Honduras, and it shares maritime borders with Colombia and El Salvador. Nicaragua is the largest country in Central America, it occupies an area of 130,370 km², compared it is somewhat larger than half the size of the United Kingdom or slightly smaller than the state of New York. Spanish (official), English 6.2 million (2017) 130,370 km² (50,336 sq. mi.) NI NIC Universidad Centroamericana de Managua Founded 1960 (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional Agraria Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua The Independent National University of Nicaragua-Leon (UNAN-Leon) is the oldest of Nicaragua and the last university founded on Latin America by the Spaniards, City of Leon. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua Managua Founded 1982 (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería Type: Republic. Independence: 1821 (from Spain). Constitution: The 1987 Sandinista-era Constitution was changed in 1995 to provide for a more even distribution of power among the four branches of government and again in 2000 to increase the Supreme Court and the Controller General's Office and to make changes to the electoral laws. Natural resources: Arable land, livestock, fisheries, gold, timber. Agriculture products: Coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products. Industries: Food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood. Exports - commodities: coffee, beef, gold, sugar, peanuts, shrimp and lobster, tobacco, cigars, automobile wiring harnesses, textiles, apparel, cotton Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products


Destination Niger, a virtual guide to this landlocked country in Western Africa situated on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. It is one of the world's least-developed nations. Niger is bordered by Libya and Algeria in the north, Benin and Nigeria in the south, Burkina Faso in southeast, Mali in west, and Chad in east. Before France incorporated the region as part of its colonial African possessions in the early 20th century, the area was subject to conflicts between various kingdoms and tribes. French (official), Hausa, Djerma, Fulfulde, Kanuri, Tamachek, Toubou, Gourmantche, Arabic. 2.24 crores (2018) 1,267,000 km² (490,000 sq. mi.) NE NER Abdou Moumouni University Formerly the University of Niamey, is the largest and only public university in Niger, located in Niamey. Maryam Abacha American University of Niger Private university and the first bilingual University in West Africa, located in Maradi, Niger. Africa Speaks A collection of essays and stories by Nigerien university students, about growing up and living in West Africa on the fault line between traditional and western cultures. Climate: Hot, dry, and dusty; tropical in extreme south. Rainy season June - September. Type: Republic, multiparty Presidential regime. Head of State: President. Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France). Natural resources: Uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, petroleum. Agriculture products: Millet, sorghum, rice, corn, fruits, vegetables, cotton, peanuts, cassava, cowpeas. Industries: Uranium mining, cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals Exports - commodities: uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals


A virtual guide to Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, a country in the south east of West Africa, with a coast at the Bight of Benin and the Gulf of Guinea. Nigeria is bordered by Benin, Cameroon, Chad, and Niger, it shares maritime borders with Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, and São Tomé and Príncipe. With an area of 923,768 km² the country is almost four times the size of the UK or slightly more than twice the size of the U.S. state California. Nigeria's main rivers are the Niger, where it got its name from, and the Benue, the main tributary of the Niger. The country's highest point is Chappal Waddi (or Gangirwal) with 2,419 m (7,936 ft.), located in the Adamawa mountains in the Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Taraba State, on the border with Cameroon. English (official), Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba 192 million (UN estimate 2017) 924,000 sq. km. (356,700 sq. mi.) NG NGA National Library of Nigeria The National Library of Nigeria in Abuja, regrettably most categories are empty. Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Founded in 1962 as the University of Ife. Lagos State University - LASU The university operates a multi-campus system, its main campus is at Ojo, Lagos. National Open University of Nigeria Nigeria's largest tertiary institution in terms of student numbers. University of Abuja The University in Nigeria's capital runs both conventional classroom and distance learning academic programmes. University of Ibadan Nigeria's Premier University was founded in 1962, it will be one of the five campuses of the new Pan African University (PAU), founded in 2011. University of Nigeria Federal university located in Nsukka, Enugu State, second oldest university in the country, founded in 1955. Climate: Nigeria lies within the tropics, it has two seasons, a wet season from April-Oct., and a dry season from Nov.-March. Its climate range from a warm desert clima in north east to a tropical savanna climate in south. Type: An elected civilian government took office on 29 May 1999, following 15 years of military rule. Independence: 1 October 1960. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc. Agriculture products: Cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish. Industries: Crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel. Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals

Northern Mariana Islands

Ferdinand Magellan, discoverer by trade, claimed the islands for Spain in 1521. As usual, the following seizure by Spanish colonists was definitly much of a disadvantage for the local inhabitants the Chamorro, they have been almost wiped out. Some centuries later the islands were sold by Spain to Germany in 1899 and remained under the German flag until 1914 when the Japanese moved against the Germans, forced them out and virtually annexed the Islands into the Empire. The islands came under US administration as part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific. Today the islands with their cultural and historical attractions, world class golf courses, luxury hotels, tropical jungles and colorful underwater reef life, are a destination for vacation trips. Chamorro, Carolinian, English 56,882 (2018) 477 km² (184 sq. mi.) MP Northern Marianas College NMC has facilities on Saipan, Tinian, and Rota and offers classes in Liberal Studies, Business, Education, Corrections, Nursing, Film and much more. Northern Mariana Islands Council for the Humanities The mission of the NMI Council for the Humanities is to foster awareness, understanding, and appreciation of the humanities through support of educational programs that relate the humanities to the indigenous cultures and to the intellectual needs and interests of the people of the Commonwealth. Climate: Tropical marine, dry season from December to June, rainy season from July to October. Type: Commonwealth in political union with the US; self-governing with locally elected governor. Chief of state: The incumbent U.S. President. Natural resources: Aarable land, fish. Agriculture products: Coconuts, fruits, vegetables; cattle. Industries: Tourism, construction, garments, handicrafts.


A virtual guide to Norway, one of the Scandinavian kingdoms. The country is situated in Northern Europe, the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, with coastlines at the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Sweden, Finland, and Russia and it shares maritime borders with the United Kingdom, Iceland, and Denmark. Bokmaal Norwegian, Nynorsk Norwegian (official), Sami, Finnish-speaking minorities, English 53.7 lakhs (2020) 323,802 km² (125,020 sq. mi.) NO NOR Norwegian University of Science and Technology A research university with specialization in technology and the natural sciences, campuses are located in Trondheim, Gjøvik and Ålesund. Universitetet i Bergen University of Bergen is a public university located in the city of Bergen. University of Oslo Norway's largest and oldest university, founded in 1811. Universitetet i Tromsø The Arctic University of Norway is the world's northernmost university, founded in 1968. Study in Norway All about study in Norway. Climate: Temperate along the coast, colder inland. Type: Hereditary constitutional monarchy. Independence: 1905. Constitution: 17 May 1814. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower. Agriculture products: Barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish. Industries: Petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing. Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs


Destination Maldives, officially the Republic of the Maldives, a southern Asian chain of coral islands and atolls in the Indian Ocean. The atolls formed atop submarine mountain ridges [1]. The island nation shares maritime borders with India, Sri Lanka and the British Indian Ocean Territory (UK). One of the world's most dispersed countries is made up of about 1200 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls spread over an area of 90,000 km², that's about the size of Portugal, or an area slightly larger than that of the U.S. state of Minnesota. But the smallest Asian country covers a land area of just 298 km², making it about the size of Malta or less than twice the size of Washington DC. Dhivehi, English 5.16 lakhs (2018) 298 km² (115 sq. mi.) MV MDV Ministry of Education, Maldives Official website of the ministry. Maldives National University The first university established in the Maldives in 2011 was previously known as the Maldives College of Higher Education. Climate: Hot and humid. Type: Republic. Independence: 26 July 1965 (formerly a British protectorate). Constitution: 11 November 1968. Natural resources: Fish, corals. Agriculture products: Coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; fish Industries: Tourism, fish processing, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, garments, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining. Exports - commodities: fish Imports - commodities: petroleum products, clothing, intermediate and capital goods


Destination Malaysia, a virtual guide to the country in Southeast Asia that was formerly known as "Malaya". Malaysia consists of two geographical regions divided by the South China Sea: the peninsular Malaysia (or West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula bordered by Thailand on the north and Singapore in south, and Malaysian Borneo (or East Malaysia) located on the northern part of the island of Borneo in the South China Sea, bordering Indonesia and surrounding the Sultanate of Brunei. The country shares also maritime borders with the Philippines and Vietnam. Malay, Cantonese, Hokkien, Mandarin Chinese, English, Tamil, 31.6 million (2016) 330,000 km² (127,316 sq. mi.) University of Malaya The oldest and most prestigious university in the country, the public research university is located in Kuala Lumpur. Universiti Teknologi (UTM) Official web portal of the University of Technology, the public research University in Johor Bahru. Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia The National Library of Malaysia. Climate: Tropical, annual southwest (Apr to Oct) and northeast (Oct to Feb) monsoons. Type: Federal parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. Independence: 31. August 1957. (Malaya, which is now peninsular Malaysia, became independent in 1957. In 1963 Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore formed Malaysia. Singapore became an independent country in 1965.). Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963.


Destination Malawi, a landlocked, long stretched country in southeastern Africa in the Great Rift Valley on the western shore of Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi), the most southerly lake in the Great African Rift Valley system. Malawi shares international borders with Tanzania, Zambia and Mozambique. The country covers an area of 118,484 km², making it slightly larger than Bulgaria or slightly smaller than Pennsylvania. The nation is divided in three main regions: Northern, Central and Southern. There are also three different geographical regions, the Rift Valley, the Central African Plateau, and the Highlands. Largest river in Malawi is the Shire river, the only outlet of Lake Malawi. Highest mountain is Mount Mulanje at 3,002 m (9,849 ft)?. English, Chichewa (official), Chitumbuka, Chiyao, Chilomwe. 1.81 crores (2018) 118,484 sq. km. (45,747 sq. mi.) MW Chancellor College Largest of the constituent colleges of the University of Malawi, located in Zomba. Phoenix Primary School International School, Blantyre. Saint Andrews Primary School International Primary School. University of Malawi Home page of the University of Malawi. Climate: Predominately sub-tropical; two main seasons, cold-dry and hot-wet. The hot-wet season is from November to April. Type: multi-party democracy. Independence: July 6, 1964. Constitution: May 18, 1995. Natural resources: Limestone, uranium (potential), coal, bauxite, phosphates, graphite, granite, black granite, aquamarine, tourmaline, rubies, sapphires, rare earths. Agriculture products: Tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; groundnuts, Macadamia nuts; cattle, goats. Industries: Tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods. Exports - commodities: tobacco 55%, dried legumes (8.8%), sugar (6.7%), tea (5.7%), cotton (2%), peanuts, coffee, and soy (2015 est.) Imports - commodities: food, petroleum products, semi-manufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment


Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs. (Source: CIA - The World Factbook) Chinese 6.32 lakhs (2018) 28.2 km² total, with 8.9 km² MO Macau Polytechnic Institute Official homepage of Macao Polytechnic Institute. University of Macau Public institution of higher learning, founded in 1992. Climate: Subtropical; hot and rainy from spring through summer, cool and humid in winter. Type: Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China since 20 December 1999. Macau has its own mini-constitution (the Basic Law). Natural resources: none Agriculture products: vegetables; fishing. Industries: Tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys. Exports partners: USA, China, Hong Kong, Germany Imports partners: China, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, USA, Taiwan


Destination Mali, a virtual guide to the region of the former Mali Empire. Mali is a landlocked country in interior of Western Africa, large parts in the north reach deep into the center of the Sahara, more than half of the country lies in the extremely hot, dust-laden desert, while its central parts are in the Sahel zone, the transition zone between the desert and the savanna, the grassy plain in the south. Mali is bordered by Algeria in north, by Niger in east, by Burkina Faso and Cote d'Ivoire in south, by Guinea in south-west, and by Senegal and Mauritania in west. French (official) and Bambara 1.91 crores (2018) 1,240,000 km² (474,764 sq. mi.) ML MLI Lycée Français Liberté The school's homepage, Bamako (in French). Université de Bamako The University of Bamako is a public university in Mali's capital Bamako, it is also known as the University of Mali. Climate: Semitropical in the south; arid in the north. Type: Republic Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France). Natural resources: Gold, phosphate, kaolin, salt, and limestone. Agriculture Products, (42% of GDP): millet, sorghum, corn, rice, livestock, sugar, cotton, Groundnuts (peanuts), and tobacco. Agriculture products: Cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats. Industries: Food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining. Exports - commodities: cotton, gold, livestock Imports - commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles


estination Mongolia, a large and sparsely populated, landlocked country in eastern Asia south of Russia and north of China, east of Kazakhstan. The country is known as the "Land of the Eternal Blue Sky" and as the "Land of the Horse". The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires for centuries. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. Languages: Mongolian, Kazakh, Russian, and English. 31.7 lakhs (2018) Area: 1,564,100 km² (603,863 sq. mi.) MN National University of Mongolia (NUM) NUM is the country's oldest and only comprehensive university and a leading center of sciences, education and culture, stablished on 5 October 1942. Climate: Sharp continental, marked by four seasons. Average summer temperature +17'C, average winter temperature -26'C. Type: Parliamentary Republic. Independence: gained in 1921; in 1990, democratic reform begun and shift from dependence on the former Soviet Union declared. Constitutions: 1960 and 12 February 1992. Natural resources: Oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron. Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses. Industries: Construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing. Exports - commodities: copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergent


Destination Mauritius, an archipelago in Southern Africa in the Indian Ocean, about 900 km (560 mi) east of Madagascar and 200 km (120 mi) north east of Réunion. The island nation includes the main island of Mauritius, the island Rodrigues, 600 km (373 mi) further east, the two outer islands of Agaléga, 1065 km (660 mi) to the north, and the archipelago of Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint Brandon), 430 km to the northeast. Mauritius, Rodrigues, and nearby Réunion (170 km (110 mi) southwest) form part of the Mascarene Islands. The combined area of 2,040 km² of the country is about one fifth smaller than Luxembourg or about half the size of the US state of Rhode Island. French, English, Creole, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bhojpuri 12.7 lakhs (2018) Area: 2,040 km² (770 sq. mi. MU, MUS University of Mauritius University of Mauritius is the national university and the oldest and largest university in the country, founded in 1965. The university's main campus is located at Réduit, Moka. Climate: Tropical; cyclone season mid-December-April. Government: Type: Republic. Independence: 12 March 1968 ( from UK, Mauritius became a republic in 1992). Constitution: 12 March 1968. Natural resources: Arable land, fish. Agriculture products: Sugar, sugar derivatives, tea, tobacco, vegetables, fruits, flowers and fishing. Industries: Labor-intensive goods for export, including textiles and clothing, watches and clocks, jewelry, optical goods, toys and games, and cut flowers; tourism. Exports - commodities: clothing and textiles, sugar, cut flowers, molasses, fish, primates (for research) Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, capital equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals

Saudi Arabia

Destination Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a desert country and an Arab Muslim State situated in Southwest Asia. Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula, bordering the Red Sea in west and the Persian Gulf in east. It is bordered by Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The country shares maritime borders with Bahrain, Egypt, Eritrea, Iran and Sudan. Saudi Arabia is the largest state in Western Asia with an area of more than 2 million km², it is almost four times the size of Metropolitan France or somewhat larger than Mexico. Arabic (official) 3.37 crores (2018) 2 million km² (868,730 sq. mi.) SA King Saud University (KSU) Founded in 1957 (1376/77 AH) as the Riyadh University, one of the first institutions of higher education in Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. King Abdul Aziz University (KAU) Founded in 1967 (1386/87 AH), Jeddah and Madinah. King Faisal University (KFU) Founded in 1975 (1395 AH), Hofuf and in Dammam, Eastern Province. (Arabic only) King Fahad University of Petrolume & Minerals Founded in 1963 (1382/83 AH). Umm Al-Qur'a Islamic University Founded in 1979 (1399/1400 AH), Makkah. Islamic University of Madinah Founded in 1961 (1380/81 AH), Faculties of Islamic Law (Shari'ah), the Holy Qur'an and Islamic Studies, Da'wa and Usul Al-Din, Islamic Traditions (Hadith) and Arabic Language. King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) An independent scientific organization of the Saudi Arabian Government. Climate: Arid, with great extremes of temperature in the interior; humidity and temperature are both high along the coast. Monarchy with Council of Ministers and Consultative Council. Head of State and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques: King and Prime Minister Salman bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 23 January 2015). Unification: 23 September 1932. Constitution: The Holy Qur'an (Governed according to Islamic Law) Branches: Executive: King (chief of state and head of government) Legislative: none; a Consultative Council with advisory powers was formed September 1993. Judicial: Supreme Council of Justice, Islamic Courts of First Instance and Appeals. Political parties: None. Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper. Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk. Industries: Crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement, construction, fertilizer, plastics. Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 90% (2012 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles.


A virtual travel guide to Singapura; the Malay name for "Lion City". The city-state in Southeast Asia consists of the island of Singapore and about 54 smaller islands. The main island is linked by a causeway to Johor Baru on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The former British colonial trading post is since its independency in 1965, officially the Republic of Singapore, the city state is situated 137 km (85 mi) north of the equator, and just south of Peninsular Malaysia. In south the Strait of Singapore separates the island from the Riau Archipelago of Indonesia. PuTongHua (Mandarin Chinese, official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English (official) 56.4 lakhs (2018) Area: 597 km² (230,5 sq. mi. SG Ministry of Education (MOE) Official site of the ministry. National University of Singapore (NUS) The University was founded in 1905. NUS Library The University's Libraries are a group of six multi-disciplinary libraries. Singapore Polytechnic Official site with comprehensive information on a very wide range of programmes and courses offered by the Polytechnic. Climate: equatorial, a tropical rainforest climate; hot and humid. Type: Parliamentary Republic. Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation) Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution) Natural resources: Fish, deepwater ports. Agriculture - products: Rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables, poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish. Industries: Electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade. Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products, foodstuffs and beverages Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods

South Africa

The country covers an area of 1,221,000 km², compared it is larger than four times the size of Italy, or slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of Texas South Africa has a population of 55.9 million people (official estimate 2016), the country's administrative capital is Pretoria; legislative capital is Cape Town and the judicial capital is Bloemfontein (Mangaung), largest city is Johannesburg. SA has 11 official languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa, and Zulu. Most spoken first languages are Zulu (isiZulu - 23%), Xhosa (isiXhosa - 16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.4%). Sesotho sa Leboa, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati (Swazi), Tshivenda, Xitsonga, Afrikaans, English isiNdebele, isiXhosa, isiZulu 55.9 million (2016) 1.2 million km² (470,462 sq. mi) ZA ZAF University of Fort Hare The oldest historically black university in Southern and Eastern Africa, founded in 1916. University of Natal University of Pretoria University of South Africa University of the Witwatersrand More South African Universities will be found in the Guide to South Africa's Provinces Climate: moderate, mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; similar to southern California. Type: Republic. Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK); South Africa became a republic in 1961. Constitution: 1996. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Natural resources: South Africa is rich of natural resources: Gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas. Agriculture products: Corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products. Industries: Mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs. Exports - commodities: gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs.


Destination Spain, a Nations Online country profile of España, one of the two countries situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Spain has a coastline along the Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the southeast. Spain is bordered by Andorra, France, Gibraltar (U.K.), Portugal, and Morocco (at the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla on the North African coast). It also shares maritime borders with Algeria and Italy. The country occupies an area of 505,992 km², making it the fourth-largest in Europe and the second-largest in western Europe. Compared, it is about twice the size of the United Kingdom or slightly more than twice the size of the US state of Oregon. Spanish (official), Catalan-Valenciana, Galician, Basque (euskera), Occitan (aranés) 47.1 million (2020) 506.000 km² (194,884 sq. mi.) ES, ESP Universidad Autónoma de Madrid UAM UAM is a public university located in Madrid, founded in 1968; it is one of the most prestigious universities in Spain, especially in the fields of Biology, Nursing, Medicine, Physics, and Law. Universidad de Alcalá The University of Alcalá is a public university and an important landmark of Alcalá de Henares. The city is located 35 km (22 mi) northeast of Madrid; the World Heritage Site University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Alcalá de Henares was the first planned university city in the world, founded in the early 16th century. Universidad Carlos III de Madrid A public university with a distinctly international profile, founded in 1989. The university has a good reputation in business subjects, especially in economics. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona The Autonomous University of Barcelona, UAB, is a public university near the city of Barcelona in Catalonia. UAB is among the leading universities in Spain, especially in the fields of health sciences, natural sciences and technology, humanities, and social sciences. Climate: Spain has a temperate climate, with hot summers in the interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in the interior, partly cloudy and cool along the coast. Type: Constitutional Monarchy (Juan Carlos I. proclaimed King 22 November 1975). Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978. Natural resources: Coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land. Agriculture products: Grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish. Industries: Textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism. Exports - commodities: machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods. Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments.

Sri Lanka

Destination Sri Lanka, an island nation in the Indian Ocean, located between the Laccadive Sea in west and the Bay of Bengal in east. The island is situated about 30 km (19 mi) south east of the southern coast of India. Sri Lanka consists of a main island and a number of smaller islands. Until 1972 the country was known as Ceylon. The islands cover an area of 65,610 km², compared the country is about 1.5 times the size of Denmark, or slightly larger than the U.S. state West Virginia. Sinhala and Tamil (official), English 2.17 crores (2018) 65,610 km² (25,332 sq. mi.) LK LKA Lanka Academic Network Our mission is to enhance educational opportunities in Sri Lanka University of Colombo The oldest campus in Sri Lanka University of Moratuwa The University has its origins in the Ceylon Technical College of Maradana, which was established in 1893 University of Peradeniya Successor to the University of Ceylon, the first institution of its kind in the country, founded in 1942. Science and Research National Science Foundation (NSF) Initiate, facilitate and support scientific research by universities, science and technology institutions and scientists. Climate: Tropical; rainy seasons--light in northeast, fall and winter, with average rainfall of 50 in.; heavy in southwest, summer and fall, with average rainfall of 200 in. Government: Type: Republic. Independence: 4 February 1948 (from the UK) Constitution: 31 August 1978. Natural resources:Agricultural products: Paddy, maha, yala, rubber, tea, coconut. Agriculture products: Rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, beef. Industries: Rubber processing, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco. Exports - commodities: textiles and apparel, tea and spices; rubber manufactures; precious stones; coconut products, fish. Imports - commodities: petroleum, textiles, machinery and transportation equipment, building materials, mineral products, foodstuffs.


A virtual guide to the formerly largest country in Africa. Sudan was separated in 2011 into Northern Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan, with a predominantly Arab population and South Sudan, formerly the southern part of Sudan, now officially the Republic of South Sudan, with a majority population of people with a Black African heritage. The country is situated in north-eastern Africa, between Egypt to the north and Eritrea, bordering the Red Sea in north east. It is also bordered by Libya in north west, by Chad in west, by the Central African Republic in south west, by South Sudan in south and by Ethiopia in south east, and it shares maritime borders with Saudi Arabia. Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur, English 4.18 crores (2018) 2.5 million km² (965,255 sq. mi.) SD Ahfad University for Women A private, non-sectarian university for women located in Omdurman, Sudan, founded in 1966. Sudan University Of Science And Technology Largest institution of technology in Sudan. University of Gezira Information about the University (ARABIC). University of Khartoum Founded in 1902 as Gordon Memorial College. Climate: Desert and savanna in the north and central regions and tropical in the south. Government: Type: Provisional Government established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in January 2005. Independence: 1 January 1956 (from the UK). Natural resources: Petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower. Agriculture products: Cotton, groundnuts, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock. Industries: Oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly. Exports - commodities: gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar. Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat.


Destination Sweden, one of the Scandinavian countries located in northern Europe on the Scandinavian Peninsula. It is bordered by the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia, the Kattegat, Skagerrak, and Öresund straits, by Norway in west and north. The Torne river forms most of Sweden's border with Finland in east. A portion of the country lies north of the Arctic Circle. The country shares maritime borders with Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Sweden covers an area of 450,295 km² making Sweden roughly twice the size of Great Britain (island), or slightly larger than the U.S. state of California. Small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities 1.02 crores (2019) 450,295 km² (173,859 sq. mi.) SE, SWE Göteborg Universitet The university in Sweden's second largest city, Gothenburg. Lunds Universitet The university in the city of Lund is one of northern Europe's oldest, largest and most prestigious universities. Stockholms Universitet Stockholm University is a public university in Stockholm, Sweden, founded as a college in 1878, a major center for higher education and research. Svenska Fysikersamfundet The Swedish Physical Society is a nonprofit organization founded in 1920 (in Swedish). Uppsala University Oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries. Universities and University Colleges in Sweden List of links. LIBRIS Union catalogue of Swedish research and special libraries. Högskoleverket The National Agency for Higher Education. Climate: Temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north. Type: constitutional monarchy .Independence: 6 June 1523; when Gustav Eriksson Vasa, known as the elected king Gustav I of Sweden re-established separation of the Swedish Crown from the Kalmar Union of Norway, Denmark and Sweden. Natural resources: Iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower. Agriculture products: Barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk. Industries: Iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles. Exports - commodities: machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2012 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing


A virtual guide to Helvetia, how the country was called in ancient times, but even today the name is still in use. Switzerland is a landlocked mountainous country in South Central Europe, bordered by Austria, France, Germany, Italy, and Liechtenstein. With an area of 41,285 km², the country is only slightly smaller than the Netherlands or slightly less than twice the size of the US state of New Jersey. German, French, Italian, Romansch 85.7 lakhs (2019) 41,285 km² (15,941 sq. mi.) CH Uni Basel The University of Basel (in German). Universität Bern Université de Genéve University of Geneva, founded in 1559. Université de Lausanne Foundation of the Academy in 1537. Universität Zürich University of Zurich, founded in 1833. Science European Laboratory for Particle Physics "Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire" - Some of the experiments of CERN leads to a communication tool called the internet Climate: From Central European in the north to Mediterranean in the south, varying with altitude and season. Type: Federal republic. Independence: The first Swiss Confederation was founded in August 1291 as a defensive alliance among three cantons (Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden, known as Waldstätte or Urschweiz). The Swiss Confederation established independence from the Holy Roman Empire in 1499. Constitution: 1848; extensively amended in 1874; fully revised in 2000 Federal Charter of 1291 Natural resources: Waterpower, timber, salt. Agricultural Products: Dairy, livestock, grains, fruit and vegetables, potatoes, wine. Industries: Machinery, chemicals, watch-making, textiles, precision instruments. Exports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, metals, watches, agricultural products. Switzerland is the top exporter of Gold, Base Metal Watches, and Precious Metal Watches. Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, vehicles, metals; agricultural products, textiles


Syria is a country in the Middle East, with a coastline at the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey, and it shares maritime borders with Cyprus. The country occupies an area of 185,180 km², it is about twice the size of Portugal or slightly larger than U.S. state of North Dakota. Syria has a population of 24 million people, capital city is Damascus, spoken languages are Arabic (official), English and French (widely understood), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic. Arabic (official), English and French, Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian 1.69 crores (2018) 185,180 km² (71,504 sq. mi.) SY, SYR Aleppo University University of Aleppo is a public university located in Aleppo, second largest city in Syria. It is the second largest university in Syria after the University of Damascus (university website in Arabic). Damascus University Information on the largest and oldest University in Syria, established in 1903, it has campuses in several other Syrian cities. The University consists of several faculties, higher institutes, intermediate institutes and a Faculty of Dentistry. There is an institution specialized in teaching the Arabic language to foreigners, which is the largest institution of its kind in the Arab world. Climate: Mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast. Type: Republic, under Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party regimes since March 1963. Independence: 17 April 1946. Constitution: 12 March 1973. Natural resources Petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower. Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets; beef, mutton, eggs, poultry, milk. Industries: Petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining.